Search results for: analy-men-2-logic-epistemology-philosophy-of-science

Logic Epistemology Philosophy of Science

Author : Georg Meggle
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The Structure of Appearance

Author : Nelson Goodman
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With this third edition of Nelson Goodman's The Structure of Appear ance, we are pleased to make available once more one of the most in fluential and important works in the philosophy of our times. Professor Geoffrey Hellman's introduction gives a sustained analysis and appreciation of the major themes and the thrust of the book, as well as an account of the ways in which many of Goodman's problems and projects have been picked up and developed by others. Hellman also suggests how The Structure of Appearance introduces issues which Goodman later continues in his essays and in the Languages of Art. There remains the task of understanding Good man's project as a whole; to see the deep continuities of his thought, as it ranges from logic to epistemology, to science and art; to see it therefore as a complex yet coherent theory of human cognition and practice. What we can only hope to suggest, in this note, is the b. road Significance of Goodman's apparently technical work for philosophers, scientists and humanists. One may say of Nelson Goodman that his bite is worse than his bark. Behind what appears as a cool and methodical analysis of the conditions of the construction of systems, there lurks a radical and disturbing thesis: that the world is, in itself, no more one way than another, nor are we. It depends on the ways in which we take it, and on what we do.

Methodology Epistemology and Philosophy of Science

Author : Carl G. Hempel
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Actes du 14eme Congres International de Philosophie Vienne du 2 au 9 septembre 1968

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Witches Scientists Philosophers Essays and Lectures

Author : Robert E. Butts
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Robert E. Butts (1928-1997) was a philosopher and historian of science whose central concerns were the distinction between the rational and the irrational. He viewed scientific rationality as our major defence against the various conditions that encourage witch hunts and similar outbursts of irrationality, with all their attendant pain and terror. Butts saw himself as a pragmatic realist, combining what he took to be the best aspects of logical empiricism with a historically informed pragmatism, deeply appreciative of the methods of science, trying to describe a kind of rationality essential in the struggle to preserve human values. This volume gathers previously unpublished essays and lectures with some previously published, thematically related essays. It includes essays and lectures on philosophical aspects of the European witch hunt, on scientific rationality and methodology, and on the relationships between science and philosophy exhibited in the writings of such historically significant figures as Leibniz, D'Alembert, Hume, Kant, Carnap and Kuhn.

Epistemology

Author : Ernest Sosa
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New and thoroughly updated, Epistemology: An Anthology continues to represent the most comprehensive and authoritative collection of canonical readings in the theory of knowledge. Concentrates on the central topics of the field, such as skepticism and the Pyrrhonian problematic, the definition of knowledge, and the structure of epistemic justification Offers coverage of more specific topics, such as foundationalism vs coherentism, and virtue epistemology Presents wholly new sections on 'Testimony, Memory, and Perception' and 'The Value of Knowledge' Features modified sections on 'The Structure of Knowledge and Justification', 'The Non-Epistemic in Epistemology', and 'The Nature of the Epistemic' Includes many of the most important contributions made in recent decades by several outstanding authors

Register University of California

Author : University of California, Berkeley
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American Learned Men and Women with Czechoslovak Roots

Author : Mila Rechcigl
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Apart from a few articles, no comprehensive study has been written about the learned men and women in America with Czechoslovak roots. That’s what this compendium is all about, with the focus on immigration from the period of mass migration and beyond, irrespective whether they were born in their European ancestral homes or whether they have descended from them. Czech and Slovak immigrants, including Bohemian Jews, have brought to the New World their talents, their ingenuity, their technical skills, their scientific knowhow, and their humanistic and spiritual upbringing, reflecting upon the richness of their culture and traditions, developed throughout centuries in their ancestral home. This accounts for the remarkable success and achievements of these settlers in their new home, transcending through their descendants, as this monograph demonstrates. The monograph has been organized into sections by subject areas, i.e., Scholars, Social Scientists, Biological Scientists, and Physical Scientists. Each individual entry is usually accompanied with literature, and additional biographical sources for readers who wish to pursue a deeper study. The selection of individuals has been strictly based on geographical ground, without regards to their native language or ethical background. This was because under the Habsburg rule the official language was German and any nationalistic aspirations were not tolerated. Consequently, it would be virtually impossible to determine their innate ethnic roots or how the respective individuals felt. Doing it in any other way would be a mere guessing, and, thus, less objective.

Taking the Naturalistic Turn Or How Real Philosophy of Science Is Done

Author : William Bechtel
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This innovative book presents candid, informal debates among scholars who examine the benefits and problems of studying science in the same way that scientists study the natural world.

Mathematics Science and Epistemology Volume 2 Philosophical Papers

Author : Imre Lakatos
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Volume I brings together his very influential but scattered papers on the philosophy of the physical sciences, and includes one important unpublished essay on the effect of Newton's scientific achievement. Volume 2 presents his work on the philosophy of mathematics together with some critical essays on contemporary philosophers of science.

Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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Collects more than two thousand entries on philosophy and includes material on classic Western logic as well as international philosophies such as Marxism, Buddhism, and modern Islamic thought.

Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Author : Professor Edward Craig
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The most complete and up-to-date philosophy reference for a new generation, with entries ranging from Abstract Objects to Wisdom, Socrates to Jean-Paul Sartre, Ancient Egyptian Philosophy to Yoruba Epistemology. The Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy includes: * More than 2000 alphabetically arranged, accessible entries * Contributors from more than 1200 of the world's leading thinkers * Comprehensive coverage of the classic philosophical themes, such as Plato, Arguments for the Existence of God and Metaphysics * Up-to-date coverage of contemporary philosophers, ideas, schools and recent developments, including Jacques Derrida, Poststructuralism and Ecological Philosophy * Unrivalled international and multicultural scope with entries such as Modern Islamic Philosophy, Marxist Thought in Latin America and Chinese Buddhist Thought * An exhaustive index for ease of use * Extensive cross-referencing * Suggestions for further reading at the end of each entry

Epistemological Issues in Classical Chinese Philosophy

Author : Hans Lenk
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This book shows that classic Chinese philosophy is as rational as Western approaches dealing with the problems of logic, epistemology, language analysis, and linguistic topics from a philosophical point of view. It presents detailed analyses of rational and methodological features in Confucianism, Taoist philosophy, and the School of Names as well as Mohist approaches in classical Chinese philosophy, especially in regard to ideas of valid knowledge. The authors also provide new arguments against cultural relativism and antirational movements like religious fundamentalism that do not pay due attention to what all human beings have in common— to cultural universals.

Collected Papers on Epistemology Philosophy of Science and History of Philosophy

Author : W. Stegmüller
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These two volumes contain all of my articles published between 1956 and 1975 which might be of interest to readers in the English-speaking world. The first three essays in Vol. 1 deal with historical themes. In each case I as far as possible, meets con have attempted a rational reconstruction which, temporary standards of exactness. In The Problem of Universals Then and Now some ideas of W.V. Quine and N. Goodman are used to create a modern sketch of the history of the debate on universals beginning with Plato and ending with Hao Wang's System L. The second article concerns Kant's Philosophy of Science. By analyzing his position vis-a-vis I. Newton, Christian Wolff, and D. Hume, it is shown that for Kant the very notion of empirical knowledge was beset with a funda mental logical difficulty. In his metaphysics of experience Kant offered a solution differing from all prior as well as subsequent attempts aimed at the problem of establishing a scientific theory. The last of the three historical papers utilizes some concepts of modern logic to give a precise account of Wittgenstein's so-called Picture Theory of Meaning. E. Stenius' interpretation of this theory is taken as an intuitive starting point while an intensional variant of Tarski's concept of a relational system furnishes a technical instrument. The concepts of inodel world and of logical space, together with those of homomorphism and isomorphism be tween model worlds and between logical spaces, form the conceptual basis of the reconstruction.

Sociological Theory and Philosophical Analysis

Author :
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Kuhn s Intellectual Path

Author : K. Brad Wray
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Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions offers an insightful and engaging theory of science that speaks to scholars across many disciplines. Though initially widely misunderstood, it had a profound impact on the way intellectuals and educated laypeople thought about science. K. Brad Wray traces the influences on Kuhn as he wrote Structure, including his 'Aristotle epiphany', his interactions, and his studies of the history of chemistry. Wray then considers the impact of Structure on the social sciences, on the history of science, and on the philosophy of science, where the problem of theory change has set the terms of contemporary realism/anti-realism debates. He examines Kuhn's frustrations with the Strong Programme sociologists' appropriations of his views, and debunks several popular claims about what influenced Kuhn as he wrote Structure. His book is a rich and comprehensive assessment of one of the most influential works in the modern sciences.

Model Based Reasoning in Science and Technology

Author : Lorenzo Magnani
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This book discusses how scientific and other types of cognition make use of models, abduction, and explanatory reasoning in order to produce important or creative changes in theories and concepts. It includes revised contributions presented during the international conference on Model-Based Reasoning (MBR’015), held on June 25-27 in Sestri Levante, Italy. The book is divided into three main parts, the first of which focuses on models, reasoning and representation. It highlights key theoretical concepts from an applied perspective, addressing issues concerning information visualization, experimental methods and design. The second part goes a step further, examining abduction, problem solving and reasoning. The respective contributions analyze different types of reasoning, discussing various concepts of inference and creativity and their relationship with experimental data. In turn, the third part reports on a number of historical, epistemological and technological issues. By analyzing possible contradictions in modern research and describing representative case studies in experimental research, this part aims at fostering new discussions and stimulating new ideas. All in all, the book provides researchers and graduate students in the field of applied philosophy, epistemology, cognitive science and artificial intelligence alike with an authoritative snapshot of current theories and applications of model-based reasoning.

The Epistemological Spectrum

Author : David K. Henderson
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Henderson and Horgan set out a broad new approach to epistemology. They defend the roles of the a priori and conceptual analysis, but with an essential empirical dimension. 'Transglobal reliability' is the key to epistemic justification. The question of which cognitive processes are reliable depends on contingent facts about human capacities.

The Philosophy of Social Science

Author : Garry Potter
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New Perspectives of the Philosophy of Social Science provides a comprehensive history, explanation and critique of empiricism and positivism within the natural and social sciences, as well as an overview of the interpretivist/hermeneutic tradition in social science. Questions concerning the criteria for judging truth and validity, the nature of rationality, social reality and scientificity, unfold in a uniquely accessible dialogue format. Students with no previous knowledge of this highly contested field will find themsleves taken on an entertaining and challenging philosophical journey. The dialogue anticipates the most frequently asked questions of such readers, provides clear explanations of all specialised terminology and contextualises contemporary debates. It thus transforms potential confusion into a clear understanding of complex issues. The text shows how the perspectives of earlier traditions persist in modified form, covering poststructuralism, postmodernism, critical theory, feminist epistemology and concludes with a critical realist account of both natural and social science. New Perspectives of the Philosophy of Social Science is essential reading for students of social theory and the philosophy of social science. Students across the full range of social science disciplines will find the book of interest. Sociology students will find it a particularly valuable resource.

The Economics of Science

Author : James R Wible
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Science is difficult and costly to do well. This study systematically creates an economics of science. Many aspects of science are explored from an economic point of view. The scientist is treated as an economically rational individual. This book begins with economic models of misconduct in science and the legitimate, normal practices of science, moving on to market failure, the market place of ideas, self-correctiveness, and the organizational and institutional structures of science. An exploration of broader methodological themes raised by an economics of science ends the work.