Search results for: atrocity-and-amnesia

Atrocity and Amnesia

Author : Robert Boyers
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Working deliberately against the grain of assumptions dominant in the contemporary literary academy, Boyers examines novels by G?nter Grass, Gabriel Garcia M?rquez, Milan Kundera and others, arguing that it is necessary to speak of character, ethics, and philosophic purpose if one is to understand these works. A penetrating study, Atrocity and Amnesia illuminates some of the major fiction of our time and makes an important contribution to contemporary political thought.

The Dictator s Dictation

Author : Robert Boyers
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In these elegant essays, many of them originally written for The New Republic and Harper's, Robert Boyers examines the role of the political imagination in shaping the works of such important contemporary writers as W. G. Sebald and Philip Roth, Nadine Gordimer and Mario Vargas Llosa, Natalia Ginzburg and Pat Barker, J. M. Coetzee and John Updike, V. S. Naipaul and Anita Desai. Occasionally he finds that politics actually figures very little in works that only pretend to be interested in politics. Elsewhere he discovers that certain writers are not equal to the political issues they take on or that their work is fatally compromised by complacency or wishful thinking. In the main, though, Boyers writes as a lover of great literature who wishes to understand how the best writers do justice to their own political obsessions without suggesting that everything is reducible to politics. Resisting the notion that novels can be effectively translated into ideas or positions, he resists as well the notion that art and politics must be held apart, lest works of fiction somehow be contaminated by their association with "real life" or public issues. The essays offer a combination of close reading, argument, and assessment. What, Boyers asks, is the relationship between form and substance in a work whose formal properties are particularly striking? Is it reasonable to think of a particular writer as "reactionary" merely because he presents an unflattering portrait of revolutionary activists or because he is less than optimistic about the future of newly independent societies? What is the status of private life in works set in politically tumultuous times? Can the novelist be "responsible" if he consistently refuses to engage the conditions that affect even the intimate lives of his characters? Such questions inform these essays, which strive to be true to the essential spirit of the works they discuss and to interrogate, as sympathetically as possible, the imagination of writers who negotiate the unstable relationships between society and the individual, art and ideas.

Genocide Mass Atrocity and War Crimes in Modern History Blood and Conscience 2 volumes

Author : James Larry Taulbee
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Defining "genocide" as an international crime, this two-volume set provides a comparative study of historical cases of genocide and mass atrocity—clearly identifying the factors that produced the attitudes and behaviors that led to them—discusses the reasons for rules in war, and examines how the five principles laid out in the Geneva Conventions and other international agreements have functioned in modern warfare. • Presents a comparative perspective and detailed historical background for each case that emphasizes how many different factors may lead to atrocity/genocide • Discusses the difficulty of organizing international efforts to intervene to prevent atrocities or to respond at the moment they are occurring • Explains why international prosecutions for genocide are difficult even though the goal of the law is to hold responsible those in charge as well as the planners and instigators • Identifies how cultural factors affect individual attitudes toward what is accepted as legitimate behavior in combat • Focuses on the "law in action" with illustrations from specific cases

Mass Atrocity Collective Memory and the Law

Author : Mark Osiel
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To this end, writes Osiel, we should pay closer attention to the way an experience of administrative massacre is framed within the conventions of competing theatrical genres. Defense counsel will tell the story as a tragedy, while prosecutors will present it as a morality play. The judicial task at such moments is to employ the law to recast the courtroom drama in terms of a "theater of ideas," which engages large questions of collective memory and even national identity. Osiel asserts that principles of liberal morality can be most effectively inculcated in a society traumatized by fratricide when proceedings are conducted in this fashion.

Japan s Wartime Medical Atrocities

Author : Jing Bao Nie
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Prior to and during the Second World War, the Japanese Army established programs of biological warfare throughout China and elsewhere. In these “factories of death,” including the now-infamous Unit 731, Japanese doctors and scientists conducted large numbers of vivisections and experiments on human beings, mostly Chinese nationals. However, as a result of complex historical factors including an American cover-up of the atrocities, Japanese denials, and inadequate responses from successive Chinese governments, justice has never been fully served. This volume brings together the contributions of a group of scholars from different countries and various academic disciplines. It examines Japan’s wartime medical atrocities and their postwar aftermath from a comparative perspective and inquires into perennial issues of historical memory, science, politics, society and ethics elicited by these rebarbative events. The volume’s central ethical claim is that the failure to bring justice to bear on the systematic abuse of medical research by Japanese military medical personnel more than six decades ago has had a profoundly retarding influence on the development and practice of medical and social ethics in all of East Asia. The book also includes an extensive annotated bibliography selected from relevant publications in Japanese, Chinese and English.

Amnesia Road

Author : Luke Stegemann
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'At both ends of the world, I have found confusion and profound disagreement about how to read the story of the past, about who should write or speak it, and what parts of it should be written or spoken about at all.' Amnesia Road is a compelling literary examination of historic violence in rural areas of Australia and Spain. It is also an unashamed celebration of the beautiful landscapes where this violence has been carried out. Travelling and writing across two locations – the seldom-visited mulga plains of south-west Queensland and the backroads of rural Andalusia – award-winning Australian Hispanist Luke Stegemann uncovers neglected history and its many neglected victims, and asks what place such forgotten people have in contemporary debates around history, nationality, guilt and identity. 'This book will come to be regarded as a classic of Australian literature.' — Nicolas Rothwell 'Daring and original: an eloquent and moving meditation on place, memory and history.' — Mark McKenna 'Amnesia Road swept me away in lyrical storytelling, though veiled inside is a brutally complex shared history exposing the deliberate annihilation of the relationship between landscapes and their kin. Stegemann has lifted the dark shadowy veil of this denial, invisibility and silence to shift the direction of historical redemptive memory so the action of healing can begin.' — Brook Andrew 'Luke Stegemann explores with extraordinary tenderness and understanding the aftermaths of the frontier massacres in Australia and the atrocities of civil war Spain. He offers new insights about amnesia and the forgetting of the violent past and sets a roadmap to acknowledge and come to terms with the past. A brilliant achievement.' — Lyndall Ryan 'In this absorbing meditation on spectacular beauty and unfathomable cruelty, Luke Stegemann seamlessly joins his passionate love of two soils, Queensland in Australia and Andalusia in Spain. Amnesia Road displays that combination of warm empathy and cool appraisal essential in the best kind of history.' — Frank Bongiorno 'By turns beautiful and shocking, Stegemann's book reflects with a coolly objective, emotionally spare voice on the murderous pasts of Andalusia and south-west Queensland. Amnesia Road probes, with sharp intelligence, what history looks like when it can't be remembered and what it means to remember the otherwise forgotten dead.' — Francis O'Gorman, Saintsbury Professor of English Literature, University of Edinburgh

Cultural Archives of Atrocity

Author : Muriungi Columba
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Studies on the aesthetic representations of atrocity the world over have taken different discursive dimensions from history, sociology, political to human rights. These perspectives are usually geared towards understanding the manifestations, extent, political and economic implications of atrocities. In all these cases, representation has been the singular concern. Cultural Archives of Atrocity: Essays on the Protest Tradition in Kenyan Literature, Culture and Society brings together generic ways of interrogating artistic representations of atrocity in Kenya. Couched on interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary and cross-disciplinary approaches, essays in this volume investigate representations of Atrocity in Kenyan Literature, Film, Popular Music and other mediated cultural art forms. Contributors to this volume not only bring on board multiple and competing perspectives on studying atrocity and how they are archived but provide refreshing and valuable insights in examining the artistic and cultural interpellations of atrocity within the socio-political imaginaries of the Kenyan nation. This volume forms part of the growing critical resources for scholars undertaking studies on atrocity within the fields of ethnic studies, cultural studies, postcolonial studies, peace and conflict, criminology, psychology, political economy and history in Kenya.

After the Avant garde

Author : Robert Boyers
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This study of contemporary art and culture brings together Boyers's sharply focused essays on writers, filmmakers, painters, and critics, first published in the TLS, The American Scholar, Granta, The American Poetry Review, and Salmagundi. The essays respond to the diversity of "events" that make up our cultural life, and take as their central theme what Boyers calls "object loss" in the art and writing of some prominent contemporaries. The term designates a radical incapacity to think clearly about the objects--actual or imagined--that give a work point or focus. He argues that this incapacity has produced various kinds of irrelevance and dishonesty, not so much in the art of our day as in the various critical theories and response patterns which are dominant among us. Dwelling on such figures as Jean-Luc Godard, Mario Vargas Llosa, Marcel Duchamp, John Ashbery, and William Styron, Boyers frequently casts his reflections as responses to theories that have gained--especially among contemporary literary intellectuals--an indisputable currency. His essays constitute a negative aesthetic, a "definition by recoil" of postmodernist art and the ideology that promotes or defends it.

Representing Atrocity in Taiwan

Author : Sylvia Li-chun Lin
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In 1945, Taiwan was placed under the administrative control of the Republic of China, and after two years, accusations of corruption and a failing economy sparked a local protest that was brutally quashed by the Kuomintang government. The February Twenty-Eighth (or 2/28) Incident led to four decades of martial law that became known as the White Terror. During this period, talk of 2/28 was forbidden and all dissent violently suppressed, but since the lifting of martial law in 1987, this long-buried history has been revisited through commemoration and narrative, cinema and remembrance. Drawing on a wealth of secondary theoretical material as well as her own original research, Sylvia Li-chun Lin conducts a close analysis of the political, narrative, and ideological structures involved in the fictional and cinematic representations of the 2/28 Incident and White Terror. She assesses the role of individual and collective memory and institutionalized forgetting, while underscoring the dangers of re-creating a historical past and the risks of trivialization. She also compares her findings with scholarly works on the Holocaust and the aftermath of the atomic bombings of Japan, questioning the politics of forming public and personal memories and the political teleology of "closure." This is the first book to be published in English on the 2/28 Incident and White Terror and offers a valuable matrix of comparison for studying the portrayal of atrocity in a specific locale.

Karl Krolow and the Poetics of Amnesia in Postwar Germany

Author : Neil H. Donahue
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New view of the prominent German poet, with new research on his activities during the Nazi period and his pre-1945 poetry.

Japanese War Crimes during World War II Atrocity and the Psychology of Collective Violence

Author : Frank Jacob
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A challenging examination of Japanese war crimes during World War II offers a fresh perspective on the Pacific War—and a better understanding of reasons for the wartime use of extreme mass violence. • Covers the full expanse of Japanese war crimes during the Second World War from 1937 to 1945 • Examines the social and political reasons for an increase in the severity of the violence the Japanese used against women and foreign soldiers during the war • Explains how political relations between the United States and Japan were responsible for increased violence against American soldiers • Discusses hotly contested issues surrounding the denial of war crimes by the Japanese and the resulting impact on regional and international relations • Serves to stimulate discussion about the evaluation of mass violence and genocide

Japan s War Memories

Author : George Hicks
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First published in 1997, this volume responds to attention in recent years which has been belatedly directed towards reviving World War II issues involving Japan. This study deals first with the manner in which such issues so long fell into abeyance under Cold War conditions, while tracing the vast and varied writing on the war which meanwhile appeared within Japan. Evolving Japanese views on the war are largely focused on debate over the revision of the postwar constitution, especially its renunciation of "war potential". The book also contains the first overview of the decades-long litigation within Japan on the screening of textbooks, especially on the war.

Japan s War Memories

Author : George L. Hicks
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In recent years, media attention has been belatedly directed towards reviving World War II issues involving Japan. This study deals first with the manner in which such issues so long fell into abeyance under Cold War conditions, which tracing the vast and varied writing on the war which meanwhile appeared in Japan. Evolving Japanese views on the war are largely focussed on debate over the revision of the post-war constitution, especially its renunciation of 'war potential'. The book also contains the first overview of the decades-long litigation within Japan on the screening of textbooks, especially on the war.

Cultural Amnesia Necessary Memories from History and the Arts

Author : Clive James
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"I can't remember when I've learned as much from something I've read—or laughed as much while doing it."—Jacob Weisberg, Slate Finally in paperback after six hardcover printings, this international bestseller is an encyclopedic A-Z masterpiece—the perfect introduction to the very core of Western humanism. Clive James rescues, or occasionally destroys, the careers of many of the greatest thinkers, humanists, musicians, artists, and philosophers of the twentieth century. Soaring to Montaigne-like heights, Cultural Amnesia is precisely the book to burnish these memories of a Western civilization that James fears is nearly lost.

Breaking the Cycle of Mass Atrocities

Author : Marina Aksenova
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Breaking the Cycle of Mass Atrocities investigates the role of international criminal law at different stages of mass atrocities, shifting away from its narrow understanding solely as an instrument of punishment of those most responsible. The book is premised on the idea that there are distinct phases of collective violence, and international criminal law contributes in one way or another to each phase. The authors therefore explore various possibilities for international criminal law to be of assistance in breaking the vicious cycle at its different junctures.

Myths Amnesia and Reality in Military Conflicts 1935 1945

Author : Andrew Sangster
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Stalin fabricated the myth that the Germans carried out the Katyń massacre and the West accepted it while always suspecting the reality. In the same way, each country tried to forget the more painful memories of its past and construct its own mythology. The Germans were never taken to task at Nuremberg for bombing because the Anglo-Americans virtually carried out a war of annihilation. The French Gaullist myth was that it was decadent politicians who caused the defeat, and that fighting France freed itself. In a similar vein, the Italian resistance was fostered as a myth and used postwar to cover the fascist period of their history. British and American popular history tends to portray their countries as the main victors often ignoring the massive Russian contribution, and generally concentrates on the barbarity of the Eastern war. Much is forgotten and much enhanced; both incidents and leaders. The Italian military historian of this book writes in depth about the Italian war so often ignored in western history, and tackles the myth of Italian cowardice, while the British author takes a cold, calculated look at Anglo-American leaders such as Montgomery, Mountbatten, Clark, Patton, and questions the myth of the special relationship between Great Britain and the USA, as well as the official and unofficial amnesia relating to self-inflicted gas wounds in Italy.

The Politics of Atrocity and Reconciliation

Author : Michael Humphrey
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The Politics of Atrocity and Reconciliation examines contemporary political violence and atrocity in the context of the crisis of the nation-state. It explores the way violence is used to unmake the social world and how its product: suffering, is used to try to remake the social world. Humphrey considers both the unmaking of the world through torture, war, urbicide and ethnic cleansing and the resultant remaking of the world through testimony and witnessing in the forums of truth commissions and trials. The discussion thus moves from terror to trauma.

Korean Atrocity

Author : Philip D. Chinnery
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As there was no clear victor at the conclusion of the Korean War, no war crime trials were held. But, as this book reveals, there is evidence of at least 1,600 atrocities and war crimes perpetrated against troops serving with the United Nations command in Korea. The bulk of the victims were Americans but many British servicemen were tortured, killed or simply went missing.Much of the carefully researched material in this book is horrific but the stark truth is that those North Koreans and Chinese responsible went unpunished for their shameful deeds.Korean Atrocity examines the three phases of this little known but bitter conflict from the POWs perspective the first phase when the two warring factions fought themselves to a stalemate, next, the treatment of POWs in North Korea and China, and finally the repatriation/post active conflict period. During the third phase it was realised that a staggering 7956 Americans and 100 British servicemen were unaccounted for. Many POWs were not released until two years after the end of hostilities. Bizarrely the US Government insisted on a news black-out on those left behind which raises questions as to what has been done to find the missing.This is a shocking, sobering and thought-provoking book.

Exhibiting Atrocity

Author : Amy Sodaro
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Today, nearly any group or nation with violence in its past has constructed or is planning a memorial museum as a mechanism for confronting past trauma, often together with truth commissions, trials, and/or other symbolic or material reparations. Exhibiting Atrocity documents the emergence of the memorial museum as a new cultural form of commemoration, and analyzes its use in efforts to come to terms with past political violence and to promote democracy and human rights. Through a global comparative approach, Amy Sodaro uses in-depth case studies of five exemplary memorial museums that commemorate a range of violent pasts and allow for a chronological and global examination of the trend: the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, DC; the House of Terror in Budapest, Hungary; the Kigali Genocide Memorial Centre in Rwanda; the Museum of Memory and Human Rights in Santiago, Chile; and the National September 11 Memorial Museum in New York. Together, these case studies illustrate the historical emergence and global spread of the memorial museum and show how this new cultural form of commemoration is intended to be used in contemporary societies around the world.

Cultural Amnesia

Author : Professor of Classical Studies Stephen Bertman
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Explains how Americans' cultural forgetfulness is eating away at America's soul.