Search results for: blubber

Blubber

Author : Judy Blume
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Jill goes along with the rest of the fifth-grade class in tormenting a classmate and then finds out what it is like when she, too, becomes a target. Reissued with a fresh new look and cover art. Simultaneous.

The Distribution and Stratification of Persistant sic Organic Pollutants in the Blubber of Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops Truncatus

Author : Debra Lynne Zdankiewicz
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Marine mammal blubber, such as that of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), has been used to estimate environmental organic contaminant concentrations for decades. However, little is known about the distribution of these compounds as a function of blubber depth and across the body of the animal. With the inherent variability in blubber sampling techniques currently used, such as dart biopsies which may not fully penetrate the blubber layer and may strike different body locations, it is important to understand if blubber stratification or body location affects persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentration. To investigate these effects on POP concentrations, six full-depth blubber samples were taken from one dolphin to assess variation in fatty acid distribution and contaminant storage with body location. Three of the blubber samples were separated into distinct layers based on histological examination to determine if organic contaminant stratification in the blubber was similar across body locations. In this one individual, both organic contaminant and fatty acid distributions were heterogeneous with blubber depth and body location. POP concentrations were significantly greater in ventral and anterior body locations and greater in the outer layer when compared to the inner layer. In addition, a greater proportion of dietary fatty acids were found in the dorsal blubber and in middle and inner layers relative to other locations while a greater proportion of biosynthesized fatty acids were found in the ventral blubber and outer layers. These results suggest that organic contaminant data obtained from partial depth samples or from a sample site other than the intended biopsy site should be interpreted with care. Full-depth blubber sampled from the same location on seven individual bottlenose dolphins was also separated into layers and analyzed for POPs and fatty acids. Lipid normalized contaminant concentrations were not significantly different among blubber depths. These results suggest that although contaminant concentrations vary within an individual as a function of blubber depth, partial-depth dart biopsies may be used to assess the health of bottlenose dolphins when larger sets of samples are used and when the samples come from a similar location.

Blubber and Beyond

Author : Linnea E. Pearson
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Phocid seals rely on lipids in the form of a blubber layer as insulation and lipids as energy sources in blubber and muscle. The amount and lipid composition of blubber and other lipid stores vary throughout life within and among species of phocid seals. I hypothesized that this variation in regulation, allocation, and interactions among lipid stores is influenced by species, ontogeny, and tissue-specific thermal regimes in polar phocids: harp (Pagophilus groenlandicus), hooded (Cystophora cristata), and Weddell (Leptonychotes weddellii) seals. I investigated the thermoregulatory strategy of neonatal harp, hooded, and Weddell seals, and throughout the transition to an aquatic environment in harp seals. All three species had similar thermal resistance, though it was achieved differently using either lanugo or blubber. While there was variation in the main thermoregulatory strategy among species, no species possessed all thermal adaptations of adults. Harp and Weddell seals had higher surface area to volume ratios (SA:V), thus higher potential heat loss, though compensatory mechanisms for heat production were different between species. Harp seals were the only species with the potential for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) in brown adipose tissue (BAT), whereas Weddell seals had the highest potential for shivering thermogenesis (ST) in their skeletal muscle. Hooded seals relied on blubber, and had a significantly lower SA:V than the other two species. As harp seal pups develop, their potential for NST declines and they shift to a reliance on blubber for insulation. By late weaning, harp seal pups have similar insulative capabilities as adults, and can likely meet the thermoregulatory challenges associated with living in water. In neonatal and young seals that have little blubber, other lipid stores such as BAT and skeletal muscle lipids provide heat-generating mechanisms (NST or ST) to offset potentially high rates of heat loss. The potential for NST declines with age, as the blubber layer develops in harp seals, and weaned pups look to have similar insulative capabilities as adults. While phocid adults rely on blubber for insulation and maintain a thermal gradient across the tissue, otariids (fur seals and sea lions) instead maintain an external gradient across a thick fur layer. This has implications for the underlying lipid composition of blubber, as the fatty acids (FA) that make up this lipid respond differently to temperature. In phocid blubber, latitude (a proxy for environmental temperature) had a positive correlation with the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, but a negative correlation with saturated fatty acids. In otariids, these trends were reversed. This suggests interactions between blubber and the ambient environment play a role in the overall relative proportions of FA classes in blubber. Unlike in blubber, the FA class composition of harp, hooded, and Weddell seal skeletal muscle was similar among species. In adult female Weddell seals, the relative proportions of individual FA in blubber and muscle were significantly different between tissues; these differences persisted across seasons, and were independent of female reproductive state. It appears that the FA in blubber and muscle reflect the tissues' roles within the body. Blubber contained a greater proportion of monounsaturated FA, which remain fluid at lower temperatures, while the muscle contains a larger proportion of SFA, which produce the greatest amounts of ATP per mole oxidized to support metabolism. In adult phocids, the FA composition of the blubber layer appears to be influenced by environmental interactions with latitude (temperature), in accordance with the location of and steepness of the thermal gradient through the blubber layer. Finally, environment looks to have little influence on the FA stores in skeletal muscle, and seasonally persistent tissue differences between blubber and muscle highlight how lipid is dynamically modulated within the body of phocid seals. How and what lipids are allocated to blubber is a mixture of abiotic and biotic cues throughout life, linked to thermodynamics, ambient environment, and energy dynamics.

Blubber

Author : Judy Blume
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A New York Times BestsellerA New York Times Outstanding Book of the YearBlubber is a good name for her, the note said about Linda. Jill crumpled it up and left it on her desk. But Robby grabbed the note and before long it had gone halfway around the room. That's where it all started.

Albert and the Blubber Monster

Author : Luke Temple
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Functional Design of Dolphin Blubber

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The dolphin and its environment is sculpted by blubber - a complex, structural biomaterial. I have investigated the functional design of blubber by (1) measuring its 3-D architecture and its physical connections to other locomotor tissues, and (2) testing its dynamic biaxial stress/strain behavior. Blubber can be biomechanically modeled as an adipose hydrostat: thorax blubber is designed to maximize body volume and tailstock blubber is designed to resist torsion and to store strain energy during swimming. Blubber is directly connected to the axial skeleton in the caudal tailstock, permitting force transmission and limiting shear deformation. Dynamic and pseudostatic mechanical tests have demonstrated that blubber is both a resilient tensile and compressive spring with an elastic modulus similar to that of high-quality biological and synthetic rubbers. Preliminary data demonstrate that blubber resists stress-relaxation. Blubber is morphologically and mechanically well-suited to (1) limit large scale shear deformation that might occur across the skin's thickness and (2) function as a biological spring. This study is the first to present data that support the hypothesis that blubber may function as a spring to decrease the metabolic cost of swimming in dolphins.

Burn the Blubber

Author : Robert Dave Johnston
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In, Burn the Blubber - How to Lose Belly Fat Fast (And For Good!), author Robert Dave Johnston gives you an in-depth look at the causes of belly fat, the health implications and a comprehensive list of tips, techniques and lifestyle changes that can help you get rid of that spare tire once and for all. The author outlines thought, behavior and external changes that helped him overcome 20 + years of obesity and binge eating as well as lose more than 100 pounds, which he has now kept off for 12 years. Topics include, measuring body fat and assessing where you are, creating a definite fat loss goal, getting active, handling emotions and urges to overeat, portion control, dietary changes, list of banned foods, addressing the internal world of thoughts and belief systems, the amazing power of 'daily fasting' and numerous other tips and techniques to promote belly fat loss. Even though losing belly fat can be challenging, the author presents the material in a point-by-point format that is detailed and easy to understand. If you are looking for a guide to help you make the lifestyle changes needed to achieve long-term fat loss, this book will prove itself to be a very useful addition to your library. Burn the Blubber is Volume 4 of the series, How To Lose Weight Fast, Keep it Off & Renew The Mind, Body & Spirit Through Fasting, Smart Eating & Practical Spirituality. Hello dear friend, this is Rob. Just in case you are still undecided, here are crucial health reasons why you MUST get rid of belly fat quickly and without further hesitation. It may sound cute when somebody tells you that you are shaped like an apple or pear, but what it really means is that you are packing on the visceral fat in the thighs and butt. I get into this topic in detail inside the book; however, there is never anything cute about belly fat in view of the huge health problems that it will ALWAYS cause. Not to alarm you, but too much fat around the mid-section skyrockets your risk of life-threatening health problems as stroke, diabetes and high-blood pressure. But this warning doesn't just apply to those who are heavy. Skinny people can also pack dangerous amounts of unseen blubber. Since the person is not overweight, the fat digs itself deep around the vital organs in your tummy. Sure, these people may look slim on the outside, but, inside, they carry the same health time-bomb as others who may be noticeably overweight or obese. Doctors have told me that accumulations of fat in the midsection actually become ONE 'living organ' inside your body; a derelict 'alien' invader consuming your life resources and 'feeding' on your health. This is quite a dramatic depiction, I know. But I want to drive the message hard and deep that belly fat is deadly and must be destroyed. In which ways is belly fat harming you? Do you know? Are you soberly aware of the seriousness of the situation? Do you realize that immediate action is required to halt and vanquish these looming sicknesses? IF you are so persuaded, then what are you waiting for? One by one, we will discuss all of the changes that need to happen in your life over time. I will give you plenty of tips, motivation and inspiration to get the ball rolling and never look back. There is still time to sidestep serious health consequences. BUT you must get off the couch, get moving and stop entertaining negative thoughts related to your weight and health. So let's get started! The best is yet to come, IF you train yourself (little by little) to take daily action and modify your lifestyle in the various ways that I will suggest. May peace, love, health and prosperity follow you all of the days of your life!

Variation in Blubber Cortisol as a Measure of Stress in Beluga Whales of the Canadian Arctic

Author : Marci Renée Trana
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Exposure to stressors in free-living mammals can be measured via glucocorticoid hormones concentrations. Using adipose from marine mammals (blubber) as a tissue for extracting cortisol provides a means for measuring cortisol concentrations not associated with capture stress. Beluga whale range is limited to the Arctic where climate change is exaggerated. Our objectives were to compare cortisol concentrations among archived blubber samples with varying quality and blubber depth, compare blubber cortisol from beluga whales in a high-stress entrapment event to whales harvested during subsistence hunts, and compare blubber cortisol among beluga whale populations in relation to conservation status, diet, sex, age and year sampled. Blubber samples showing signs of deterioration had lower cortisol concentrations. The deepest blubber contained the highest concentration of cortisol compared to other depths. Blubber cortisol concentrations from entrapped whales were higher than from harvests. Blubber cortisol was higher in the threatened population when compared to healthy populations.

Blubber

Author : Ellen Gallagher
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Text by Beth Coleman.

Elephant Seals Mountains of Blubber

Author : Caitlind L. Alexander
File Size : 29.46 MB
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Elephant seals are huge animals that live part of their life on land. When I say they are huge, I mean huge. The male elephant seal can grow to be up to 16 feet (4.9 metres) long. They can weigh 6,600 pounds (3000 kilograms)! An average car weighs about 3,000 pounds (1360 kilograms). That means a male elephant seal can weigh more than two cars! That is big! Female elephant seals are only about half the size of the males. That is still a very big seal, though. Female elephant seals can be up to about 10 feet (three metres) long and weigh about 2,000 pounds (910 kilograms) Find out more about this amazing animal and learn the answers to these questions: How long does an elephant seal stay in the water? How deep can an elephant seal dive? In what way do male elephant seals dive differently from female elephant seals? Why do elephant seals like to hang out in very deep water? In March or April elephant seals wake up to find that their mother is gone. Where did she go? Learn what an elephant seal looks like, where it lives, what it eats, what eats it, how babies are born, and other fun facts. Ages 7 - 10 Reading Level 3.7 All measurements in American and metric. LearningIsland.com believes in the value of children practicing reading for 15 minutes every day. Our 15-Minute Books give children lots of fun, exciting choices to read, from classic stories, to mysteries, to books of knowledge. Many books are appropriate for hi-lo readers. Open the world of reading to a child by having them read for 15 minutes a day.

Elephant Seals Mountains of Blubber

Author : Caitlind L. Alexander
File Size : 53.80 MB
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Elephant seals are huge animals that live part of their life on land. When I say they are huge, I mean huge. The male elephant seal can grow to be up to 16 feet (4.9 metres) long. They can weigh 6,600 pounds (3000 kilograms)! An average car weighs about 3,000 pounds (1360 kilograms). That means a male elephant seal can weigh more than two cars! That is big! Female elephant seals are only about half the size of the males. That is still a very big seal, though. Female elephant seals can be up to about 10 feet (three metres) long and weigh about 2,000 pounds (910 kilograms) Find out more about this amazing animal and learn the answers to these questions: How long does an elephant seal stay in the water? How deep can an elephant seal dive? In what way do male elephant seals dive differently from female elephant seals? Why do elephant seals like to hang out in very deep water? In March or April elephant seals wake up to find that their mother is gone. Where did she go? Learn what an elephant seal looks like, where it lives, what it eats, what eats it, how babies are born, and other fun facts. Ages 7 to 10 All measurements in American and metric. This Educational Version includes activities designed to reinforce Common Core Curriculum Standards. LearningIsland.com believes in the value of children practicing reading for 15 minutes every day. Our 15-Minute Books give children lots of fun, exciting choices to read, from classic stories, to mysteries, to books of knowledge. Many books are appropriate for hi-lo readers. Open the world of reading to a child by having them read for 15 minutes a day.

Blubber Lamps in the Erteb lle Culture

Author : Therkel Mathiassen
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Blubber the Bleached Whale

Author : Lisa J. Mitchell
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Meet Blubber the Whale. He loves to eat, in fact he will eat just about anything. Join Blubber as he tries to find out why nobody likes him after eating something with a BANG! in it.

t Englisch deutsch

Author : Eduard Muret
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The Tocopherol and Vitamin A Content of Some Marine Blubber Oils

Author : Christine A. Heller
File Size : 63.84 MB
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Fur Versus Blubber

Author : Heather Elizabeth Mostman Liwanag
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Meyniana

Author :
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Berichte zur Polar und Meeresforschung

Author :
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Hormones and Blubber

Author : Nicholas M. Kellar
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This compilation of research describes the development, validation, and application of a novel approach to assess life-history states in free-ranging cetacean populations. Two assays were developed in which reproductive hormone concentrations were quantified in readily available skin samples to assess 1) pregnancy state and 2) male maturity state, information that can be in turn used to assess reproductive output and demographic structure of dolphin groups in the wild. Toward these ends and important for the validation of this approach, new procedures were developed to verify reproductive state in dead female specimens in which reproductive tract was at hand (Chapter 1). Here several histological characters of the corpus luteum were used to help differentiate females undergoing ovulation from those who were pregnant. Using these new procedures to identify reference samples (females of known pregnancy condition) a pregnancy assay for use on skin biopsies was developed and validated on three species of small delphinids (Chapter 2). Levels of blubber progesterone in dolphins of known pregnancy state were determined from carcasses collected from fishery-bycatch and local strandings. Pregnant short-beaked common dolphin blubber were found to contain dramatically more progesterone (16 times) than the blubber of non-pregnant mature and immature females. In addition, no overlap was found between the pregnancy states such that pregnancy diagnosis was unambiguous. Using these concentrations as reference we quantified the levels of progesterone in the blubber connected to projectile biopsies of wild pan-tropical spotted dolphins and found that animals exposed to higher levels of tuna-fishing effort were less likely to be pregnant (Chapter 4). Finally, unlike with blubber progesterone and pregnancy, blubber testosterone was less precise in determining the maturity state of individual male dolphins. However, with a sufficient reference collection of blubber testosterone concentrations from male dolphins of known maturity state we developed a Bayesian method to estimate the probability of maturity of individual animals, which could be used in turn to estimate the proportion of males that were mature within any given group of biopsy samples (Chapter 3).

Torture and Blubber

Author : Kurt Vonnegut
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