Search results for: dark-matter-and-cosmic-web-story

Dark Matter and Cosmic Web Story

Author : Jaan Einasto
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The concepts of dark matter and the cosmic web are some of the most significant developments in cosmology in the past century. They have decisively changed the classical cosmological paradigm, which was first elaborated upon during the first half of the 20th century but ran into serious problems in the second half. Today, they are integral parts of modern cosmology, which explains everything from the Big Bang to inflation to the large scale structure of the Universe. Dark Matter and Cosmic Web Story describes the contributions that led to a paradigm shift from the Eastern point of view. It describes the problems with the classical view, the attempts to solve them, the difficulties encountered by those solutions, and the conferences where the merits of the new concepts were debated. Amidst the science, the story of scientific work in a small country occupied by the Soviet Union and the tumultuous events that led to its breakup are detailed as well. This book is accompanied by a website which contains additional material: copies of the originals of some crucial papers, astronomical movies, and movies which showcase the private life of the author. The link is given below: http://www.aai.ee/~einasto/DarkMatter/ Contents:PrologueClassical Cosmological ParadigmGalactic Models and Dark Matter in the Solar VicinityGlobal Dark MatterThe Cosmic WebThe Nature of Dark MatterThe Structure of the Cosmic WebCosmic Inflation, Dark Energy and the Evolution of the UniverseEpilogue Readership: Students and professionals in astrophysics, cosmology and physics; non-experts interested in the history of science, and the life and social activity of scientists in a country occupied by Soviet Union for 50 years. Keywords:Dark Matter;Cosmic Web;Large-Scale Structure of the UniverseKey Features:The development of the concepts of dark matter and the cosmic web as a change in the worldview (paradigm) in cosmology is describedA personal view of the development of dark matter and cosmic web concepts as seen by a non-Western scientistDescription of scientific work and social activity in a small country occupied by the Soviet Union; the participation of scientists in processes which led to the collapse of the Soviet Empire, and to the end of the Cold WarReviews: “A deeply humane but also political account, the book offers a fascinating insider tour into one of the most important processes of cosmology. Einasto a pioneer of dark matter research offers a thorough scientific description of the discovery of dark matter.” Anne Liljeström Editor Stars and Universe “A fascinating combination of the scientific history of dark matter with personal recollections, by an author who was there both for the discovery of DM and for the (singing revolution) in Estonia.” Virginia Trimble Professor of Astronomy University of California, Irvine

The Cosmic Web

Author : J. Richard Gott
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Semi-autobiographical discussion of astronomy and astronomers, and history of astronomy and cosmology.--

Kepler Problem in the Presence of Dark Energy and the Cosmic Local Flow

Author : Alexander Silbergleit
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This book derives and analyzes all solutions to the Kepler problem with dark energy (DE), presenting significant results such as: (a) all radial infinite motions obey Hubble’s law at large times; (b) all orbital infinite motions are asymptotically radial and obey Hubble’s law; (c) infinite orbital motions strongly dominate the finite ones. This clearly shows the effect of repulsive DE: In the classical Kepler problem, all orbital motions are finite for negative energies and infinite in the opposite case. Another DE effect is spatial localization of bounded orbits: mostly, they are within the equilibrium sphere, where the attractive Newtonian force outbalances the repulsive force of DE. This problem is of particular current interest due to recent studies of the local flows of galaxies showing domination of DE in their dynamics; the book discusses this observation in detail.

The Discovery of Cosmic Voids

Author : Laird A. Thompson
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The definitive story of the discovery of cosmic voids from a key protagonist in the development of the discipline.

From the Realm of the Nebulae to Populations of Galaxies

Author : Mauro D'Onofrio
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In order to outline possible future directions in galaxy research, this book wants to be a short stopover, a moment of self-reflection of the past century of achievements in this area. Since the pioneering years of galaxy research in the early 20th century, the research on galaxies has seen a relentless advance directly connected to the parallel exponential growth of new technologies. Through a series of interviews with distinguished astronomers the editors provide a snapshot of the achievements obtained in understanding galaxies. While many initial questions about their nature have been addressed, many are still open and require new efforts to achieve a solution. The discussions may reveal paradigms worthwhile revisiting. With the help of some of those scientists who have contributed to it, the editors sketch the history of this scientific journey and ask them for inspirations for future directions of galaxy research.

Chandra s Cosmos

Author : Wallace H. Tucker
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On July 23, 1999, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the most powerful X-ray telescope ever built, was launched aboard the space shuttle Columbia. Since then, Chandra has given us a view of the universe that is largely hidden from telescopes sensitive only to visible light. In Chandra's Cosmos, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Chandra science spokesperson Wallace H. Tucker uses a series of short, connected stories to describe the telescope's exploration of the hot, high-energy face of the universe. The book is organized in three parts: "The Big," covering the cosmic web, dark energy, dark matter, and massive clusters of galaxies; "The Bad," exploring neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes; and "The Beautiful," discussing stars, exoplanets, and life. Chandra has imaged the spectacular, glowing remains of exploded stars and taken spectra showing the dispersal of their elements. Chandra has observed the region around the supermassive black hole in the center of our Milky Way and traced the separation of dark matter from normal matter in the collision of galaxies, contributing to both dark matter and dark energy studies. Tucker explores the implications of these observations in an entertaining, informative narrative aimed at space buffs and general readers alike.

Beyond the Galaxy

Author : Ethan Siegel
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So far, so good: the universe at the start of the 20th century -- A relatively different story: how Einstein's relativity revolutionized space, time and the universe -- Beyond the Milky Way: a giant leap into an expanding universe -- The great leap backwards: theories on where it all came from -- An elementary story: how the stars gave life to the universe -- All the way back: it started with a bang -- What does it matter: why there's more matter than antimatter in the universe -- Before the big bang: how the entire universe began -- Dancing in the dark: dark matter and the great cosmic web -- The ultimate end: dark energy and the fate of the universe -- Past, present and future: all we know about all there is

The Evolving Universe and the Origin of Life

Author : Pekka Teerikorpi
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Regarding his discoveries, Sir Isaac Newton famously said, "If I have seen further it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants." The Evolving Universe and the Origin of Life describes, complete with fascinating biographical details of the thinkers involved, a history of the universe as interpreted by the expanding body of knowledge of humankind. From subatomic particles to the protein chains that form life, and expanding in scale to the entire universe, this book covers the science that explains how we came to be. This book contains a great breadth of knowledge, from astronomy and physics to chemistry and biology. The second edition brings this story up to date, chronicling scientific achievements in recent years in such fields of research as cosmology, the large-scale architecture of the universe, black holes, exoplanets, and the search for extraterrestrial life. With over 250 figures, this is a non-technical, easy-to-read textbook at an introductory college level that is ideal for anyone interested in science as well as its history.

Deep Space

Author : Stuart Clark
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What are time and space? When and how did the universe begin - and how will it end? Why has such a rich variety of celestial objects come into being? And was life an inevitable development in the cosmos?The answers to our most profound questions lie in the depths of space. To look here is, in effect, to look back in time, as we see light emitted long ago from distant stars and galaxies. As we stare deep into space, we also gaze deep into the past - back towards the beginning of the universe itself.Now Deep Space allows us to see, with our own eyes, the mysterious objects and phenomena that inhabit the far reaches of the cosmos and the earliest times of existence. Each of this book's ten chapters explains one big idea in humanity's study of the origins and evolution of the universe. These fundamental concepts include the big bang and the expanding universe; the formation of stars and planets; the anatomy and lifecycle of a galaxy; the existence of black holes and supermassive black holes; gravity and Einstein's Theory of Relativity; dark matter and dark energy; the cosmic web; and theories of how the universe will end. These cornerstones in our understanding of the universe are clearly introduced by Dr Stuart Clark's straightforward commentary, and are exemplified by over 250 of the very latest and clearest images of the cosmos, provided by the Hubble Space Telescope and other, even more advanced, viewing technologies.

Our Universe Via Drexler Dark Matter

Author : Jerome Drexler
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This book is different from all other modern cosmology books in several ways. It introduces a cosmologic universe, which is orderly, logical, and systematic. It teaches and explains by illustrating how a variety of cosmic mysteries have been solved. It raises the status of dark matter in the universe by illuminating its roles as the principal source of energy, the principal source of matter in the form of hydrogen and helium, and the principal source of cosmic relationships with the principal cosmic phenomena of the universe. This book simplifies the universe as Nicolaus Copernicus' book simplified the solar system in 1543. With more and more cosmic mysteries being discovered and the slow progress in solving them, cosmologists and astrophysicists must re-train themselves to understand and to utilize the postmodern unified astrophysical cosmology model and to maximize the knowledge derived from the astronomical data. These are the three principal objectives of this book.

Cosmological Clues

Author : Carolyn Devereux
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Did the Universe have a beginning? Will it have an end? Or has it always been the same, never changing? This is the subject of cosmology; the study of the Universe, and this book provides a perfect introduction to the subject for anyone that is interested in the wonders of our Universe This book provides an accessible overview of the Standard Model of Cosmology, which is explained in six Cosmological Clues, including evidence for the Big Bang and dark matter and dark energy - the keystones of modern cosmology. It takes readers through some of the most exciting questions in cosmology, such as what evidence do we have that the Universe started from the Big Bang? Has dark matter been observed? Will we ever know what dark energy is? Are the multiverses real? And could the Universe be a hologram? This book is an ideal guide for anyone interested in finding out more about our Universe. It will be of interest to those studying cosmology for the first time, including readers without a scientific background, who have an interest in looking up at the stars and wondering where they all came from! Key features: Contains the latest evidence for the Big Bang, dark matter, and dark energy and explores exciting scientific ideas, such as inflation and multiverses Provides a clear explanation of the main theories of how the Universe evolved based on key observations - the Cosmological Clues Gives the reader a concise introduction to the scientific process, using cosmology as the example, and explores why it has been so successful in creating the technologies we have today

Dark Energy Survey The The Story Of A Cosmological Experiment

Author : Ofer Lahav
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This book is about the Dark Energy Survey, a cosmological experiment designed to investigate the physical nature of dark energy by measuring its effect on the expansion history of the universe and on the growth of large-scale structure. The survey saw first light in 2012, after a decade of planning, and completed observations in 2019. The collaboration designed and built a 570-megapixel camera and installed it on the four-metre Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in the Chilean Andes. The survey data yielded a three-dimensional map of over 300 million galaxies and a catalogue of thousands of supernovae. Analysis of the early data has confirmed remarkably accurately the model of cold dark matter and a cosmological constant. The survey has also offered new insights into galaxies, supernovae, stellar evolution, solar system objects and the nature of gravitational wave events.A project of this scale required the long-term commitment of hundreds of scientists from institutions all over the world. The chapters in the first three sections of the book were either written by these scientists or based on interviews with them. These chapters explain, for a non-specialist reader, the science analysis involved. They also describe how the project was conceived, and chronicle some of the many and diverse challenges involved in advancing our understanding of the universe. The final section is trans-disciplinary, including inputs from a philosopher, an anthropologist, visual artists and a poet. Scientific collaborations are human endeavours and the book aims to convey a sense of the wider context within which science comes about.This book is addressed to scientists, decision makers, social scientists and engineers, as well as to anyone with an interest in contemporary cosmology and astrophysics.Related Link(s)

Relativistic Jets from Active Galactic Nuclei

Author : Markus Boettcher
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Written by a carefully selected consortium of researchers working in the field, this book fills the gap for an up-to-date summary of the observational and theoretical status. As such, this monograph includes all used wavelengths, from radio to gamma, the FERMI telescope, a history and theory refresher, and jets from gamma ray bursts. For astronomers, nuclear physicists, and plasmaphysicists.

A Ray of Light in a Sea of Dark Matter

Author : Charles Keeton
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What’s in the dark? Countless generations have gazed up at the night sky and asked this question—the same question that cosmologists ask themselves as they study the universe. The answer turns out to be surprising and rich. The space between stars is filled with an exotic substance called “dark matter” that exerts gravity but does not emit, absorb, or reflect light. The space between galaxies is rife with “dark energy” that creates a sort of cosmic antigravity causing the expansion of the universe to accelerate. Together, dark matter and dark energy account for 95 percent of the content of the universe. News reporters and science journalists routinely talk about these findings using terms that they assume we have a working knowledge of, but do you really understand how astronomers arrive at their findings or what it all means? Cosmologists face a conundrum: how can we study substances we cannot see, let alone manipulate? A powerful approach is to observe objects whose motion is influenced by gravity. Einstein predicted that gravity can act like a lens to bend light. Today we see hundreds of cases of this—instances where the gravity of a distant galaxy distorts our view of a more distant object, creating multiple images or spectacular arcs on the sky. Gravitational lensing is now a key part of the international quest to understand the invisible substance that surrounds us, penetrates us, and binds the universe together. A Ray of Light in a Sea of Dark Matter offers readers a concise, accessible explanation of how astronomers probe dark matter. Readers quickly gain an understanding of what might be out there, how scientists arrive at their findings, and why this research is important to us. Engaging and insightful, Charles Keeton gives everyone an opportunity to be an active learner and listener in our ever-expanding universe. Watch a video with Charles Keeton: Watch video now. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uc3byXNS1G0).

Your Place in the Universe

Author : Paul M. Sutter
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An astrophysicist presents an in-depth yet accessible tour of the universe for lay readers, while conveying the excitement of astronomy. How is a galaxy billions of lightyears away connected to us? Is our home nothing more than a tiny speck of blue in an ocean of night? In this exciting tour of a universe far larger than we can imagine, cosmologist Paul M. Sutter emphasizes how amazing it is that we are part of such a huge, complex, and mysterious place. Through metaphors and uncomplicated language, Sutter breathes life into the science of astrophysics, unveiling how particles, forces, and fields interplay to create the greatest of cosmic dramas. Touched with the author's characteristic breezy, conversational style--which has made him a breakout hit on venues such as The Weather Channel, the Science Channel, and his own popular Ask a Spaceman! podcast--he conveys the fun and wonder of delving deeply into the physical processes of the natural universe. He weaves together the past and future histories of our universe with grounded descriptions of essential modern-day physics as well as speculations based on the latest research in cosmology. Topics include our place in the Milky Way galaxy; the cosmic web--a vast web-like pattern in which galaxies are arranged; the origins of our universe in the big bang; the mysteries of dark matter and dark energy; how science has dramatically changed our relationship to the cosmos; conjectures about the future of reality as we know it; and more. For anyone who has ever stared at the starry night sky and wondered how we humans on Earth fit into the big picture, this book is an essential roadmap.

Discovering Postmodern Cosmology

Author : Jerome Drexler
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Learn how a world-class inventor-scientist is currently tackling the greatest scientific mysteries of the universe -- and succeeding. With his new book, Drexler provides a viable baseline to jump-start debate on a standard model for postmodern cosmology. It is the first book to not only address these seven unsolved cosmic mysteries, shown in this book's subtitle, but also offer plausible explanations for each of them. The correlation of these seven cosmic phenomena by Drexler offers a revolutionary advance in cosmological research and potentially broad acceptance and use of the related concepts. This book was written for open-minded cosmologists, astronomers, astrophysicists, physicists, engineers, students, enthusiasts and those at NASA, NSF, DOE and ESO who want to understand postmodern cosmology. The author's five years of cosmology research, and his successes, convinced him that his postmodern cosmology model is correctly based upon the relationships and linkages of these seven cosmic phenomena.

Einstein s Telescope The Hunt for Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe

Author : Evalyn Gates
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“Splendidly satisfying reading, designed for a nonspecialist audience.”—Kirkus Reviews, starred review Evalyn Gates, a talented astrophysicist, transports readers to the edge of contemporary science to explore the revolutionary tool—”Einstein’s telescope”—that is unlocking the secrets of the Universe. Einstein’s telescope, or gravitational lensing, is so-called for the way gravity causes space to distort and allow massive objects to act like “lenses,” amplifying and distorting the images of objects behind them. By allowing for the detection of mass where no light is found, scientists can map out the distribution of dark matter and come a step closer to teasing out the effects of dark energy on the Universe—which may forever upend long-held notions about where the Universe came from and where it is going.

Neutron Stars

Author : Katia Moskvitch
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Neutron stars, the ultra-dense remnants of exploded stellar giants, are among the most fascinating objects in the cosmos. Katia Moskvitch introduces readers to their astonishing qualities and follows the scientists who are discovering what neutron stars can tell us about the mysteries of dark matter, black holes, and general relativity.

Precision Cosmology

Author : Bernard J. T. Jones
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Cosmology seeks to characterise our Universe in terms of models based on well-understood and tested physics. Today we know our Universe with a precision that once would have been unthinkable. This book develops the entire mathematical, physical and statistical framework within which this has been achieved. It tells the story of how we arrive at our profound conclusions, starting from the early twentieth century and following developments up to the latest data analysis of big astronomical datasets. It provides an enlightening description of the mathematical, physical and statistical basis for understanding and interpreting the results of key space- and ground-based data. Subjects covered include general relativity, cosmological models, the inhomogeneous Universe, physics of the cosmic background radiation, and methods and results of data analysis. Extensive online supplementary notes, exercises, teaching materials, and exercises in Python make this the perfect companion for researchers, teachers and students in physics, mathematics, and astrophysics.

Let There be Life

Author : Robert Fripp
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Using prose and scientific fact, this book combines the spirit and sense of Genesis with current scientific thought on cosmic change and life's evolution on our planet.