Search results for: india-and-counterinsurgency

India and Counterinsurgency

Author : Sumit Ganguly
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This edited volume focuses on India's experiences waging counterinsurgency campaigns since its independence in 1947. Filling a clear gap in the literature, the book traces and assess the origins, evolution and current state of India's counterinsurgency strategies and capabilities, focusing on key counterinsurgency campaigns waged by India within and outside its territory. It also analyzes the development of Indian doctrine on counterinsurgency, and locates this within the overall ebb and flow of India's defense and security policies. The central argument is that counterinsurgency has been an integral part of India's overall security policy and can thereby impart much to political and military leaders in other states. Since its emergence from British colonialism, India's defence policies have not merely sought to protect and preserve India's inherited colonial borders from threats by rival states, but have also sought to prevent and suppress secessionist movements. In countering insurgencies, the Indian state has fashioned strategies that seek to repress militarily any secessionist movement, while simultaneously forging a range of civilian administrative and institutional arrangements that attempt to address the grievances of disaffected populations. The book highlights key strategic and tactical innovations that the Indian Army and security forces made to deal with a range of insurgent movements. Simultaneously, it also examines how the civilian-military nexus enabled India's policy makers to utilize existing, and formulate novel, institutional means to address extant political grievances. India has been most successful where it has managed to use calibrated force, obtained the trust of much of the aggrieved population and made persuasive commitments to political and institutional reform. Examination of these elements of India's counterinsurgency performance can be compared to counterinsurgency doctrine developed by other countries, including the United States, and thus yield comparative policy prescriptions and recommendations that can be applied to other counterinsurgency contexts. This book will be of great interest to students of counterinsurgency and irregular warfare, Indian politics, Asian Security Studies and Strategic Studies in general.

Fighting Like a Guerrilla

Author : Rajesh Rajagopalan
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This book deals with two significant issues: the peculiar and paradoxical question of why regular armies, better suited to fighting conventional high-intensity wars, adopt inappropriate measures when fighting guerilla wars; and the evolution of the Indian army’s counterinsurgency doctrine over the last decade. In addition, the book also includes the first detailed analysis of the trajectory of the army’s counterinsurgency doctrine, arguing that while it was consolidated only over the last decade, the essential elements of the doctrine may in fact be traced back to the army’s first confrontation with the Naga guerillas in the 1950s. It outlines the three essential elements that make up the Indian army’s counterinsurgency doctrine: that there are no military solutions to an insurgency; that military force can only help to reduce levels of violence to enable political solutions; and that there should be limited use of military force. Rajagopalan argues that international circumstances — particularly the need to counter conventional military threats from Pakistan and China — led to a counterinsurgency doctrine that had a strong conventional war bias. This bias also conditioned the organisational culture of the Indian army.

The Soldier and the State in India

Author : Ayesha Ray
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The Soldier and the State in India is one of the first attempts at offering a theoretical perspective for examining some of the most critical issues that have emerged in Indian civil-military relations. It specifically examines issues pertaining to military expertise and military professionalism that emerged whenever there was a contestation in civil-military functions, thereby allowing the military greater influence in policy-making. The book uses Samuel Huntington's ideas on military professionalism and Peter Feaver's discussion of military expertise in the American context as the theoretical framework for addressing similar issues that have emerged in debates on Indian civil-military relations. Moreover, it also includes a serious focus on the role of the Indian military in counterinsurgency operations and the impact of Indian nuclear strategy on the relationship between civilians and the military in India. Most books on the subject have failed to address issues that emerge when there is a contestation in civil-military functions; this book seeks to fill that gap.

Indian National Security and Counter Insurgency

Author : Namrata Goswami
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This book, based on extensive field research, examines the Indian state’s response to the multiple insurgencies that have occurred since independence in 1947. In reacting to these various insurgencies, the Indian state has employed a combined approach of force, dialogue, accommodation of ethnic and minority aspirations and, overtime, the state has established a tradition of negotiation with armed ethnic groups in order to bolster its legitimacy based on an accommodative posture. While these efforts have succeeded in resolving the Mizo insurgency, it has only incited levels of violence with regard to others. Within this backdrop of ongoing Indian counter-insurgency, this study provides a set of conditions responsible for the groundswell of insurgencies in India, and some recommendations to better formulate India’s national security policy with regard to its counter-insurgency responses. The study focuses on the national institutions responsible for formulating India’s national security policy dealing with counter-insurgency – such as the Prime Minister’s Office, the Cabinet Committee on Security, the National Security Council, the Ministry of Home Affairs and the Indian military apparatus. Furthermore, it studies how national interests and values influence the formulation of this policy; and the overall success and/or failure of the policy to deal with armed insurgent movements. Notably, the study traces the ideational influence of Kautilya and Gandhi in India’s overall response to insurgencies. Multiple cases of armed ethnic insurgencies in Assam, Manipur, Mizoram, and Nagaland in the Northeast of India and the ideologically oriented Maoist or Naxalite insurgency affecting the heartland of India are analysed in-depth to evaluate the Indian counter-insurgency experience. This book will be of much interest to students of counter-insurgency, Asian politics, ethnic conflict, and security studies in general.

Beyond Counter insurgency

Author : Sanjib Baruah
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This volume offers new ways of understanding conflicts in Northeast India, and the means to resolve them. The chapters discuss how democratic politics and the world of armed rebellions intersect in complex ways in this region.

Counterinsurgency Democracy and the Politics of Identity in India

Author : Mona Bhan
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The rhetoric of armed social welfare has become prominent in military and counterinsurgency circuits with profound consequences for the meanings of democracy, citizenship, and humanitarianism in conflict zones. By focusing on the border district of Kargil, the site of India and Pakistan’s fourth war in 1999, this book analyses how humanitarian policies of healing and heart warfare infused the logic of democracy and militarism in the post-war period. Compassion became a strategy to contain political dissension, regulate citizenship, and normalize the extensive militarization of Kargil’s social and political order. The book uses the power of ethnography to foreground people’s complex subjectivities and the violence of compassion, healing, and sacrifice in India’s disputed frontier state. Based on extensive research in several sites across the region, from border villages in Kargil to military bases and state offices in Ladakh and Kashmir, this engaging book presents new material on military-civil relations, the securitization of democracy and development, and the extensive militarization of everyday life and politics. It is of interest to scholars working in diverse fields including political anthropology, development, and Asian Studies.

Countering Insurgencies in India

Author : E M Rammohun
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The author has discussed six insurgencies that have taken roots in India from its inception. He has gone into the details of its causes and spread as relevant to various insurgencies in different parts of India. The author has supported most of the reasons of its spread with his personal experience, having served in various capacities in these affected areas. Many scholars have written about the causes that lead to insurgencies all over the world, lessons learnt by them and remedial measures adopted by them. Regrettably, the author feels we did not learn any lessons from these. Our oldest insurgency of the Nagas in Nagaland and the Manipur Hills is still festering though ten years of a ceasefire has led to no conclusions. In Kashmir it is the Centre that triggered off the insurgency that Pakistan had failed to initiate on several occasions from 1947 to 1989. Good governance has never been achieved in any of these insurgent states with the sole exception of Tripura. We are in the throes of a Maoist Communist led insurgency in Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar and part of Maharashtra. All this has been discussed in the book in detail.

Understanding Indian Insurgencies

Author : Durga Madhab (John). Mitra
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A simple linear model for India has been developed to demonstrate how the degree of inaccessibility of an area, the strength of separate social identity of its population, and the amount of external influence on the area determine the propensity of that area for insurgency. Implications of the Indian model for various aspects of counterinsurgency strategy for the Third World, including economic development, the role of democracy, social and political autonomy, and counterinsurgency operations are discussed. Recommendations for effective counterinsurgency strategy and for long-term stability in these countries are included. India is very complex and provides an ideal window for understanding Asian society.

Explaining Success and Failure

Author : Deepak Aneel Boyini
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The Maoist insurgency in India, also called Naxalism, has become a threat to internal security with ever-growing violence and attacks on security forces and civilians. With the increased numbers of cadres, improved weaponry, and guerilla tactics, the Maoists' challenge to the state stretches across 16 of India's 28 states, affecting its economic growth. Despite efforts by India's state and central governments, counterinsurgency against Naxalism has failed in majority of affected areas. With an aim of finding a model that could lead to success in countering the Maoist insurgency, this thesis seeks to explain counterinsurgency success and failure, using cross-national and sub-national comparisons. At the national level, the successful Malayan counterinsurgency approach by the British is juxtaposed against the largely failed attempts by the Indian central authorities to control Naxalism. The thesis finds that success is explained by a combination of enemy-centric and population-centric approaches whereas failure is explained by lack of balance between the two. At the state level within India, a comparison between the successful case of Andhra Pradesh and the failed case of Chhattisgarh reveals a similar pattern. Specifically, enemy-centric measures based on reliable intelligence, a capable force, and a unified command followed by population-centric aspects of winning hearts and minds, lead to success in countering insurgencies.

Understanding Indian Insurgencies

Author : John Mitra
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A simple linear model for India has been developed to demonstrate how the degree of inaccessibility of an area, the strength of separate social identity of its population, and the amount of external influence on the area determine the propensity of that area for insurgency. Implications of the Indian model for various aspects of counterinsurgency strategy for the Third World, including economic development, the role of democracy, social and political autonomy, and counterinsurgency operations are discussed. Recommendations for effective counterinsurgency strategy and for long-term stability in these countries are included. India is very complex and provides an ideal window for understanding Asian society.

Comparing India s Counterinsurgency Approaches in Sri Lanka and Against the Naxalites Communist Party Tamil Liberation Tigers Majority Sinhalese Domination Jaffna Battle and Operation Checkmate

Author : U. S. Military
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India possesses a rich history of combating insurgencies throughout its country. The Naxalite movement originated when India gained its independence and now seventy years later presents the greatest insurgency threat. India also experienced a pivotal counterinsurgency experience as a third party actor in Sri Lanka. This research study sought to compare the influence of India's external counterinsurgency approaches in Sri Lanka to their domestic approaches against the Naxalites. The methodology for this research consists of analyzing each case study for the appearance or absence of twenty-four counterinsurgency approaches. This research found no evidence of counterinsurgency operations in Sri Lanka influencing future domestic counterinsurgency operations against the Naxalites. The major counterinsurgency findings include the necessity to enact political reform; to reduce insurgent support; to recruit, train, and employ local security forces; to co-opt the population; and to achieve unity of effort. Insurgencies have and will continue to threaten governments around the world. How governments and their militaries, conduct counterinsurgency varies from country to country. These variations occur for different reasons and therefore make it difficult to generalize the use of counterinsurgency. This makes research even more important to the understanding and effects of counterinsurgency operations. Additionally, critical to any learning organization is the use of history and previous experiences. Recent United States military experience comes from operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, but other countries have a long and/or recent history of counterinsurgency operations. The United States' perspective is as a third party entity coming from the outside to assist a host nation with their own insurgency issues. The United States must understand operations from this external actor perspective and must also understand operations from the perspective of the host nation. Finally, it is just as important to understand the similarities and differences between these perspectives. As the United States moves forward with a focus on maintaining the status quo within other countries, it behooves the military to look outside of its own experience to learn from others. The primary research question of this study is: how does India's counterinsurgency approach against the Naxalites compare to their experience in Sri Lanka? The hypothesis is that India's Sri Lankan experience influenced their counterinsurgency approach towards future Naxalite operations. The next section of this paper will start with a summary of counterinsurgency literature relevant to this research question. The third section will outline the methodology chosen to test the hypothesis and therefore answer the research question. Sections four and five provide the specific case studies researched and analyzed. Section four outlines and analyzes India's Peace Keeping Force's (IPKF) operations in Sri Lanka from 1987-1990. Section five outlines and analyzes the Naxalite insurgency. Section six compares and analyzes the data from both case studies. Section seven, the conclusion, will combine each analysis to test the hypothesis and thereby answer the research question. Additionally, the conclusion also includes a recommendation for future research.

Unconventional Warfare in South Asia

Author : Scott Gates
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India is the world's tenth largest economy and possesses the world's fourth largest military. The subcontinent houses about one-fifth of the world's population and its inhabitants are divided into various tribes, clans and ethnic groups following four great religions: Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, and Islam. Framing the debate using case studies from across the region as well as China, Afghanistan and Burma and using a wealth of primary and secondary sources this incisive volume takes a closer look at the organization and doctrines of the 'shadow armies' and the government forces which fight the former. Arranged in a thematic manner, each chapter critically asks; Why stateless marginal groups rebel? How do states attempt to suppress them? What are the consequences in the aftermath of the conflict especially in relation to conflict resolution and peace building? Unconventional Warfare in South Asia is a welcomed addition to the growing field of interest on civil wars and insurgencies in South Asia. An indispensable read which will allow us to better understand whether South Asia is witnessing a 'New War' and whether the twenty-first century belongs to the insurgents.

An Insider s Experience of Insurgency in India s North East

Author : J. R. Mukherjee
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Written with empathy and lucidity, Mukherjee’s book combines hard fact with sensitive insight in his approach to the region’s landscape, people and history. The author analyses problems intrinsic to this enigmatic area, offering viable solutions where possible.

An Analysis of the Indian Government s Counterinsurgency Campaign in Jammu and Kashmir

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The Indian government is involved in the longest and most costly counterinsurgency campaign that has been conducted by a nation state in modern history. The Kashmir conflict is complex. It is a conflict of interests with multiple players struggling for a variety of agendas that include independence for Kashmir by the separatists, preservation of Kashmir as a secular nation by India, and unification of Kashmir as a Muslim state by Pakistan. This thesis analyzes in depth the insurgencies in Jammu and Kashmir and the response of the Indian government and security forces to these conditions. The focus is on the Indian government's counterinsurgency campaign strategy from 1989 to the present, and the use of national power to defeat insurgency. The thesis seeks to answer two questions: (1) Is the Indian government's counterinsurgency campaign in Kashmir effective, and if not, why not?; and (2) Is the Indian government using the correct combination of the instruments of national power as a means to defeat the insurgency in Kashmir? (2 tables, 2 figures, 47 refs.).

Police and Counterinsurgency

Author : Kuldeep Kumar
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How Good Policing Can Help Fight Insurgencies In Conflict-Ridden Societies. Globally, the role of local police has been receiving increased attention following conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The criminalization of insurgent networks coupled with the growing nexus of warlords and drug lords and porous borders in many conflict areas have also bolstered the case for good policing. This book makes a case for the increased role of local/state police in counterinsurgency (COIN) operations by citing the successful implementation of this strategy in the state of Tripura led by the author himself. This makes Tripura the only state after Punjab and Andhra Pradesh where the police have taken full control of such operations. The work combines rigorous scholarship and research on general policing and COIN operations with incisive analysis of multiple insurgencies/terrorist movements in India.

Terrorism Insurgency and Indian English Literature 1830 1947

Author : Alex Tickell
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In this ground-breaking interdisciplinary study of terrorism, insurgency and the literature of colonial India, Alex Tickell re-envisages the political aesthetics of empire. Organized around key crisis moments in the history of British colonial rule such as the ‘Black Hole’ of Calcutta, the anti-thug campaigns of the 1830s, the 1857 Rebellion, anti-colonial terrorism in Edwardian London and the Amritsar massacre in 1919, this timely book reveals how the terrorizing threat of violence mutually defined discursive relations between colonizer and colonized. Based on original research and drawing on theoretical work on sovereignty and the exception, this book examines Indian-English literary traditions in transaction and covers fiction and journalism by both colonial and Indian authors. It includes critical readings of several significant early Indian works for the first time: from neglected fictions such as Kylas Chunder Dutt’s story of anticolonial rebellion A Journal of Forty-Eight Hours of the Year 1945 (1835) and Sarath Kumar Ghosh’s nationalist epic The Prince of Destiny (1909) to dissident periodicals like Hurrish Chunder Mookerji’s Hindoo Patriot (1856–66) and Shyamaji Krishnavarma’s Indian Sociologist (1905–14). These are read alongside canonical works by metropolitan and ‘Anglo-Indian’ authors such as Philip Meadows Taylor’s Confessions of a Thug (1839), Rudyard Kipling’s short fictions, and novels by Edmund Candler and E. M. Forster. Reflecting on the wider cross-cultural politics of terror during the Indian independence struggle, Tickell also reappraises sacrificial violence in Indian revolutionary nationalism and locates Gandhi’s philosophy of ahimsa or non-violence as an inspired tactical response to the terror-effects of colonial rule.

Human Rights Watch India Protecting the Killers a Policy of Impunity in Punjab India

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Beyond Naxalbari

Author : Harsharan Singh
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National Security Problem in India

Author : Longjam Randeep Singh
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Representing Rebellion

Author : Daniel J. Rycroft
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Contribution of Santal, South Asian people in the freedom struggle against British rule in India; covers the period, 1845-1856; study based on pictorial representations.