Search results for: libya-geographical-2012

Perilous Desert

Author : Frederic Wehrey
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The geopolitical significance of the Sahara is becoming painfully clear. Islamist militant groups and transnational criminal networks are operating in the region's most fragile states, exploiting widespread corruption, weak government capacity, crushing poverty, and entrenched social and ethnic tensions. The unrest spills over borders and aggravates protracted regional crises. This insecurity raises urgent concerns for the broader Sahara and the West. Perilous Desert details the sources of instability and what can be done to minimize the threat of simmering conflicts. Leading experts, through comprehensive accounts of the changing landscape, demonstrate how foreign assistance that relies exclusively on counterterrorism will only exacerbate the problems. Solutions require understanding and combatting the roots of the Sahara's many challenges.

The CIA World Factbook 2012

Author : Central Intelligence Agency
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From Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, The CIA World Factbook 2012 offers complete and up-to-date information on the world’s nations. This comprehensive guide is packed with detailed information on the politics, populations, military expenditures, and economics of 2012. For each country, The CIA World Factbook 2012 includes: Detailed maps with new geopolitical data Statistics on the population of each country, with details on literacy rates, HIV prevalence, and age structure New data on military expenditures and capabilities Information on each country’s climate and natural hazards Details on prominent political parties, and contact information for diplomatic consultation Facts on transportation and communication infrastructure And much more! Also included are appendixes with useful abbreviations, international environmental agreements, international organizations and groups, weight and measure conversions, and more. Originally intended for use by government officials, this is a must-have resource for students, travelers, journalists, and business people with a desire to know more about their world.

The Libyan Revolution and its Aftermath

Author : Peter Cole
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This book offers a novel, incisive and wide-ranging account of Libya's '17 February Revolution' by tracing how critical towns, communities and political groups helped to shape its course. Each community, whether geographical (e.g. Misrata, Zintan), tribal/communal (e.g. Beni Walid) or political (e.g. the Muslim Brotherhood) took its own path into the uprisings and subsequent conflict of 2011, according to their own histories and relationship to Muammar Qadhafi's regime. The story of each group is told by the authors, based on reportage and expert analysis, from the outbreak of protests in Benghazi in February 2011 through to the transitional period following the end of fighting in October 2011. They describe the emergence of Libya's new politics through the unique stories of those who made it happen, or those who fought against it. The Libyan Revolution and its Aftermath brings together leading journalists, academics, and specialists, each with extensive field experience amidst the constituencies they depict, drawing on interviews with fighters, politicians and civil society leaders who have contributed their own account of events to this volume.


Author : Ronald Bruce St John
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Retaining the conceptual framework of the first edition through emphasis on the dual themes of continuity and change, the second edition of Libya is revised and updated to include discussion of key developments since 2010, including: The February 17 Revolution and the death of Muammar al-Qaddafi. The political process which evolved in the course of the February 17 Revolution and led to General National Congress elections in July 2012, Constitutional Assembly elections in February 2014, and House of Representative elections in June 2014. Post-Qaddafi economic policy from the National Transitional Council through successive interim transitional governments. Post-Qaddafi foreign policy. The on-going process of drafting a new constitution which will be followed by the election of a Parliament and a President. Providing a comprehensive overview of the Libyan uprising, seen to be the exception to the Arab Spring, and highlighting the issues facing contemporary Libya, this book is an important text for students and scholars of History, North Africa and the Middle East as well as the non-specialist with an interest in current affairs.

Historical Dictionary of Libya

Author : Ronald Bruce St John
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This fifth edition of Historical Dictionary of Libya covers its history through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 400 cross-referenced entries on important personalities, politics, economy, society, conflicts, and the culture of Libya.

The Pearson CSAT Manual 2012

Author : Edgar Thorpe
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Nation Building and Personality Cult in Turkmenistan

Author : Fabio De Leonardis
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Turkmenistan is a country which is almost sealed off from the rest of the world but it has attracted foreign attention due to the eccentricities of its late president Saparmurat Niyazov Türkmenbaşy, whose ideological construction and dynamics of power have remained in place after his death. This book offers a thorough analysis of why this personality cult developed in Turkmenistan in a way that has not been seen in other newly developed Central Asian countries. In assessing the Türkmenbaşy phenomenon, this book explains the causes and origins of the personality cult by drawing a comparison with Qadhdhafi’s Libya. The author understands the Niyazov cult not as a discrete phenomenon but as a system deriving from specific historical functions and functioning in a determined social and historical context. Using accounts of the Türkmenbaşy and Qadhdhafi cults and the speeches and books written by these personalities, this book focuses on the institutional side of the personality cult. A fascinating analysis of the political situation in Turkmenistan under Saparmurat Niyazov, this book will be of interest to scholars of Political Science, Comparative Politics and, in particular, Central Asian Studies.

Hearing on National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 and Oversight of Previously Authorized Programs Before the Committee on Armed Services House of Representatives One Hundred Twelfth Congress First Session

Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services
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Geographical Distribution of Financial Flows to Developing Countries 2012 Disbursements Commitments Country Indicators

Author : OECD
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This publication provides comprehensive data on the volume, origin and types of aid and other resource flows to around 150 developing countries.

Department of Defense Authorization for Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2014 and the Future Years Defense Program

Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Armed Services
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African Frontiers

Author : John Idriss Lahai
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Through a multidisciplinary approach, African Frontiers counters the superficial, Eurocentric and gender insensitive dominant discursive representation of Africa within the discourse of war and conflict management, and security and peace/nation-building. The chapters historicize and theorize the realities in postcolonial African states, and the ramifications on the continents future. Situating the study within the context of the prevailing cultural and geo-political realities in the postcolonial African states, the chapters illustrate the complex ways in which events and processes are experienced at the local level, and how these local realities in turn impact and shape the patterns of political and military engagement in Africa and beyond. Organized along three major themes: Insurgency, governance and peacebuilding, expert researchers from around the world contribute chapters on: Rebel and insurgent formations such as the RUF, the LRA, and Boko Haram; state governance and corruption; terrorism and counter terrorism; security and peacebuilding; focussing on the tensions and challenges facing post-conflict societies such as Sierra Leone, Rwanda, and the newest nation-state on the continent, South Sudan. This highly significant and topical study problematizes the impact of wars on African nations, as well as the epistemological framing of the local realities and fallouts of armed conflict on post-colonial states.

The State of Social Progress of Islamic Societies

Author : Habib Tiliouine
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This handbook addresses the historical background of the Islamic world and reviews its basic past intellectual achievements. It studies social progress of these regions and sub-regions in comparison with other parts of the world. It uses large data sets and well established statistically weighted Indexes in order to assess the nature and pace of the multiple facets of social change in member states of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). The handbook extensively discusses the main challenges confronting the Islamic nations in the social, economic, political, and ideological fields. Though it is recognizable that social change in the Islamic World is generally positive, it remains highly variable in pace and there is room to speed it up to the benefit of millions of deprived Muslim people. Hence, the book studies the different propositions and programs of action, such as the United Nations’ Millennium Development Campaign and the OIC’s Ten-Year Programme of Action to present an integrated and comprehensive agenda of action to help improve the situation in the Islamic World.

Petroleum Geology of Libya

Author : Don Hallett
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Petroleum Geology of Libya, Second Edition, systematically reviews the exploration history, plate tectonics, structural evolution, stratigraphy, geochemistry and petroleum systems of Libya, and includes valuable new chapters on oil and gas fields, production, and reserves. Since the previous edition, published in 2002, there have been numerous developments in Libya, including the lifting of sanctions, a new licensing system, with licensing rounds in 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007, many new exploratory wells, discoveries and field developments, and a change of regime. A large amount of new data has been published on the geology of Libya in the past fourteen years, but it is widely scattered through the literature. Much of the older data has been superseded, and several of the key publications, especially those published in Libya, are difficult to access. This second edition provides an updated source of reference which incorporates much new information, particularly on petroleum systems, reserves, oil and gas fields, play fairways, and remaining potential. It presents the results of recent research and a detailed description of Libyan offshore geology. The book includes an extensive and comprehensive bibliography. Presents over 180 full colour illustrations including maps, diagrams and charts, illustrating the key concepts in a clear and concise manner Authored by two recognized world authorities on geology in Libya, with over 40 years’ experience in Libya between them Provides an expanded and updated version of the bestselling previous edition, nicknamed the Explorationist’s Bible Lays the foundation for the post-revolution exploration age in Libya

English Language Education Policy in the Middle East and North Africa

Author : Robert Kirkpatrick
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This volume offers insights on English language education policies in Middle Eastern and North African countries, through state-of-the-art reports giving clear assessments of current policies and future trends, each expertly drafted by a specialist. Each chapter contains a general description of English education polices in the respective countries, and then expands on how the local English education policies play out in practice in the education system at all levels, in the curriculum, in teaching, and in teacher training. Essays cover issues such as the balance between English and the acquisition of the national language or the Arabic language, as well as political, cultural, economic and technical elements that strengthen or weaken the learning of English. This volume is essential reading for researchers, policy makers, and teacher trainers for its invaluable insights in the role of each of the stakeholders in the implementation of policies.

Libya s Fragmentation

Author : Wolfram Lacher
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After the overthrow of the Qadhafi regime in 2011, Libya witnessed a dramatic breakdown of centralized power. Countless local factions carved up the country into a patchwork of spheres of influence. Almost no nationwide or even regional organizations emerged, and no national institutions survived the turbulent descent into renewed civil war. Only the leader of one armed coalition, Khalifa Haftar, managed to overcome competitors and centralize authority over eastern Libya. But tenacious resistance from armed groups in western Libya blocked Haftar's attempt to seize power in the capital Tripoli. Rarely does political fragmentation occur as radically as in Libya, where it has been the primary obstacle to the re-establishment of central authority. This book analyzes the forces that have shaped the country's trajectory since 2011. Confounding widely held assumptions about the role of Libya's tribes in the revolution, Wolfram Lacher shows how war transformed local communities and explains why Khalifa Haftar has been able to consolidate his sway over the northeast. Based on hundreds of interviews with key actors in the conflict, Lacher advances an approach to the study of civil wars that places the transformation of social ties at the centre of analysis.

International Financial Statistics

Author : International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.
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The IMF’s principal statistical publication, International Financial Statistics (IFS) Online, is the standard source of international statistics on all aspects of international and domestic finance. For most countries, IFS Online reports data on balance of payments, international investment position, international liquidity, monetary and financial statistics, exchange rates, interest rates, prices, production, government accounts, national accounts, and population. Updated monthly.

The Second Cold War

Author : Luiz Alberto Moniz-Bandeira
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This book investigates the geopolitics and strategic dimensions of US-American foreign policy during George W. Bush's and Barack Obama's presidential terms. Based on a vast amount of empirical and historical sources, the author offers deep insights into the recent political developments ('Arabellions') along the axis of Northern Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia, situating them in the context of the global geopolitical and geo-economical Great Game, either latent or overt, between USA/NATO and Russia. The author also analyses the influence of the US on these historical and political processes in the last two decades.

Africa s Geography

Author : Benjamin Ofori-Amoah
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Africa's Geography presents a comprehensive exploration of the world’s second largest and most culturally diverse continent. Author Benjamin Ofori-Amoah challenges common misconceptions and misrepresentations of Africa from a geographical perspective, harnessing the power of modern geographic mapping technology to explore this unique continent. This text provides thorough coverage of the historical, cultural, economic, and political forces that continue to shape Africa, applying geographic context to relevant past and contemporary issues. Coverage of economic development, climate and biogeography, transportation and communication, manufacturing and commerce, and mining and agriculture provides foundational knowledge of this vast and complex continent. Ideally suited for multiple areas of classroom study, this text offers an effective and flexible pedagogical framework. Coverage of the entirety of Africa enables students to develop a cohesive portrait of the continent as a whole and identify the dynamism of its nations, cultures, and economies. Engaging and accessible narrative strengthens comprehension, while examples of historical and contemporary events increase student interest. Innovative and unique, Africa’s Geography is an essential resource for cross-disciplinary investigation of this fascinating part of the world.


Author : Mahmoud N. Musa / Adebayo E. Adeyemi
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While it could be arguably stated that West Africa has achieved remarkable and sustainable progress in the areas of democratic governance and economic growth, the sub-region, over the past few years, has been challenged by terrorism and other transnational security threats. Innocent civilians are continuously killed; security operatives and providers of humanitarian assistance targeted; properties and infrastructure wantonly destroyed; thus culminating in significant displacement of people and acute poverty. If these developments are not carefully and timeously addressed, they are capable of eroding progress so far recorded. It is against this background, that this Thesis undertakes a study of the different manifestations of terrorism and related transnational security challenges in West Africa, to explore the internal and external sources and drivers of instability; establish the linkages between terrorism and transnational threats; examine the various steps taken in recent time to strengthen the sub-region’s capacity to prevent and address the menace of terrorism and other security challenges, and make necessary policy recommendations based on comprehensive best practices.

Arab Spring

Author : I. William Zartman
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Beginning in January 2011, the Arab world exploded in a vibrant demand for dignity, liberty, and achievable purpose in life, rising up against an image and tradition of arrogant, corrupt, unresponsive authoritarian rule. These previously unpublished, countryspecific case studies of the uprisings and their still unfolding political aftermaths identify patterns and courses of negotiation and explain why and how they occur. The contributors argue that in uprisings like the Arab Spring negotiation is "not just a 'nice' practice or a diplomatic exercise." Rather, it is a "dynamically multilevel" process involving individuals, groups, and states with continually shifting priorities--and with the prospect of violence always near. From that perspective, the essaysits analyze a range of issues and events--including civil disobedience and strikes, mass demonstrations and nonviolent protest, and peaceful negotiation and armed rebellion--and contextualize their findings within previous struggles, both within and outside the Middle East. The Arab countries discussed include Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen. The Arab Spring uprisings are discussed in the context of rebellions in countries like South Africa and Serbia, while the Libyan uprising is also viewed in terms of the negotiations it provoked within NATO. Collectively, the essays analyze the challenges of uprisers and emerging governments in building a new state on the ruins of a liberated state; the negotiations that lead either to sustainable democracy or sectarian violence; and coalition building between former political and military adversaries. Contributors: Samir Aita (Monde Diplomatique), Alice Alunni (Durham University), Marc Anstey* (Nelson Mandela University), Abdelwahab ben Hafaiedh (MERC), Maarten Danckaert (European-Bahraini Organization for Human Rights), Heba Ezzat (Cairo University), Amy Hamblin (SAIS), Abdullah Hamidaddin (King's College), Fen Hampson* (Carleton University), Roel Meijer (Clingendael), Karim Mezran (Atlantic Council), Bessma Momani (Waterloo University), Samiraital Pres (Cercle des Economistes Arabes), Aly el Raggal (Cairo University), Hugh Roberts (ICG/Tufts University), Johannes Theiss (Collège d'Europe), Sinisa Vukovic (Leiden University), I. William Zartman* (SAIS-JHU). [* Indicates group members of the Processes of International Negotiation (PIN) Program at Clingendael, Netherlands]