Search results for: monitoring-for-conservation-and-ecology

Monitoring for Conservation and Ecology

Author : F.B. Goldsmith
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Monitoring has become fashionable. Business now talks about monitoring its activities, efficiency, costs and profits. The National Health Service is monitoring general practices and hospitals; it is keen to have more information about efficiency and the duration of stay of patients in different hospitals undergoing different types of treatment. These activities are usually carried out in relation to specific objectives with the aim of making activities more cost effective and competitive. Does the same apply in biology, ecology and nature conservation? Or, are we still enjoying conducting field surveys for the fun of it, at best with rather vague objectives and saying to our colleagues that we do our work because we need to know what is there? This book is an opportunity to consider some of the reasons why monitoring is important, how it differs from survey, how it may be able to answer specific questions and help with site management or problem solving. It will explore some of the taxa that are suitable for recording and how you may actually set about doing it. It is not intended as a catalogue of techniques but we will in each chapter give you sources of material so that with the minimum of effort you will be able to proceed with an efficient, relevant and not too time consuming monitoring programme. Some of the points that you need to consider before starting are also set down in the synthesis at the end of the book.

Monitoring for Conservation and Ecology

Author : F. B. Goldsmith
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Monitoring Butterflies for Ecology and Conservation

Author : E. Pollard
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Previously published in hardback and now made available in paperback, this ground-breaking book is a must for all interested in butterflies, whether as conservation biologist, amateur or professional entomologist or as a student studying the phenomenon of butterfly populations as part of a number of biology, ecology or conservation courses. Recently, many British butterflies have suffered severe declines whole others have flourished and expanded in range. This is the first book to describe the results from a British scheme to monitor butterflies during this period of change. The Monitoring Scheme, initiated in 1976 by the senior author is based on frequent counts at some 90 sites throughout Britain. The combined efforts of both amateurs and professionals have thus produced a dataset with no equivalent elsewhere in the world. The book therefore provides a unique perspective on trends in numbers, extinction and foundation of populations; flight periods, local distributions, migration and other aspects of population ecology. Practical problems encountered during the conservation of butterflies of individual sites are outlined. The relevance of this monitoring for an understanding of the effects of the weather - climatic warming - is described.

Effective Ecological Monitoring

Author : Gene Likens
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Long-term monitoring programs are fundamental to understanding the natural environment and managing major environmental problems. Yet they are often done very poorly and ineffectively. This second edition of the highly acclaimed Effective Ecological Monitoring describes what makes monitoring programs successful and how to ensure that long-term monitoring studies persist. The book has been fully revised and updated but remains concise, illustrating key aspects of effective monitoring with case studies and examples. It includes new sections comparing surveillance-based and question-based monitoring, analysing environmental observation networks, and provides examples of adaptive monitoring. Based on the authors’ 80 years of collective experience in running long-term research and monitoring programs, Effective Ecological Monitoring is a valuable resource for the natural resource management, ecological and environmental science and policy communities.

Monitoring Threatened Species and Ecological Communities

Author : Sarah Legge
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Monitoring Threatened Species and Ecological Communities aims to improve the standard of monitoring for Australia's threatened biodiversity. It gathers insights from some of the most experienced managers and scientists involved with monitoring programs for threatened species and ecological communities in Australia, and evaluates current monitoring programs, establishing a baseline against which the quality of future monitoring activity can be managed. Case studies provide examples of practical pathways to improve the quality of biodiversity monitoring, and guidelines to improve future programs are proposed.

Biodiversity Monitoring and Conservation

Author : Ben Collen
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As the impacts of anthropogenic activities increase in both magnitude and extent, biodiversity is coming under increasing pressure. Scientists and policy makers are frequently hampered by a lack of information on biological systems, particularly information relating to long-term trends. Such information is crucial to developing an understanding as to how biodiversity may respond to global environmental change. Knowledge gaps make it very difficult to develop effective policies and legislation to reduce and reverse biodiversity loss. This book explores the gap between global commitments to biodiversity conservation, and local action to track biodiversity change and implement conservation action. High profile international political commitments to improve biodiversity conservation, such as the targets set by the Convention on Biological Diversity, require innovative and rapid responses from both science and policy. This multi-disciplinary perspective highlights barriers to conservation and offers novel solutions to evaluating trends in biodiversity at multiple scales.

Conservation Monitoring in Freshwater Habitats

Author : Clive Hurford
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As in the terrestrial environment, most data collection from freshwater habitats to date falls into the survey, surveillance or research categories. The critical difference between these exercises and a monitoring project is that a monitoring project will clearly identify when we need to make a management response. A Model for Conservation Management and Monitoring Monitoring (as defined by Hellawell) is essentially a tool of practical conservation management, and Fig. 1.1 shows a simple, but effective, model for nature conser- tion management and monitoring. The need for clear decision-making is implicit in this model. First we must decide what would represent a favourable state for the key habitat or species, and then we must decide when to intervene if the state is (or becomes) unfavourable. A third, often overlooked, but equally important, decision concerns when we would consider the habitat or species to have recovered; this is unlikely to be the same point that we became concerned about it. This decision not only has resource imp- cations, it can also have major implications for other habitats and species (prey species are an obvious example). All of these decisions are essential to the devel- ment of an efficient and effective monitoring project.

Monitoring Nature Conservation in Cultural Habitats

Author : Clive Hurford
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This is the first book to present monitoring as an integral component of responsible conservation management and as a catalyst for decision making. The early sections of this illustrated book cover key areas in the development of a monitoring project. The later sections of the book comprise a series of case studies covering a wide range of habitats and species. These case studies focus mostly, though not exclusively, on sites that form part of the Natura 2000 series in Europe.

Design and Analysis of Long term Ecological Monitoring Studies

Author : Robert A. Gitzen
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Comprehensive and multidisciplinary coverage of fundamental and advanced statistical tools and issues relevant to long-term ecological monitoring.

Macroalgal Forests Ecology Long term Monitoring and Conservation in a Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

Author : Alba Medrano Cuevas
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"All marine ecosystems in the Mediterranean Sea are highly threatened by anthropogenic stressors that can alter their structure and function, especially in rocky shores. Moreover, extreme climate events are becoming more frequent and intense in our times. To detect the potential impacts and the vulnerability of any ecosystem, the combination of experimental and observational studies in the field is vital. In addition, long-term monitoring programs carried out simultaneously on human-protected and human- impacted environments may be crucial to discern the nature of the impacts.Macroalgal beds dominate the shallow benthic Mediterranean habitats where they play a pivotal role. Among them, the canopy-forming Cystoseira sensu lato species represent the highest structural complexity level and provide unique habitats with ecological services comparable to terrestrial forests. Canopy-forming algae are in decline in many coastal areas where, among other impacts, overgrazing by herbivorous can lead to the loss of these diverse habitats shifting towards degraded sea urchin barren grounds. Conservation tools such as marine reserves or No-take zones (NTZs) have the potential to reduce some of the anthropogenic threats and to restore benthic habitats through trophic cascade effects caused by the major abundance of predator. Besides, active ecosystem restoration strategies may speed up the recovery of impacted ecosystems. Nevertheless, there is an important lack of continuous and long-term studies providing robust ecological data of the natural dynamic and vulnerability of macroalgal assemblages while integrating the role of marine conservation.In this dissertation, different methodological approaches were combined to explore the long-term dynamics of macroalgal communities and the role of different conservation strategies (NTZs and active restoration) in the Montgrí, Medes Islands, and Baix Ter (MIMBT) Natural Park (NW Mediterranean Sea). In the first two chapters, the analysis of long-term monitoring datasets provided essential information to understand how macroalgal assemblages and sea urchin populations respond to natural fluctuations and anthropogenic disturbances, mainly overfishing. In the third chapter, field monitoring and sampling were combined with genetic analyses to increase the ecological knowledge of the canopy-forming alga Treptacantha elegans as well as to describe their recent expansion. In the fourth and last chapter, active restoration actions as seeding experiments were conducted in aquaria and in the field to optimize restoration techniques to recover degraded shallow ecosystems. In addition, different restoration strategies were combined in the field inside and outside the Medes Islands NTZ to evaluate the role of marine protection on restoration activities.The results of this thesis showed that the abundance and structure of the main macroalgal assemblages in the MIMBT Natural Park were stable at large over the last fifteen years. Overall, any effect of marine protection was observed on the most representative species of this habitat but we found a higher abundance of canopy- forming algae inside the NTZ than in unprotected areas. Contrarily, sea urchin populations were deeply affected by a severe storm in 2008 which caused the almost depletion of its populations in all the studied areas. Although similar trajectories of sea urchin abundance have been observed over the years between both protection regimes due to the large stability of the sea urchin high-density state, clear differences in the recovery of sea urchin populations were found after the storm linked to marine protection. The sea urchin populations inside the NTZ recovered slowly than the populations outside the NTZ inside due to the higher predatory fish abundance inside the NTZ.In contrast to the global widespread decline of canopy-forming macroalgal assemblages across many regions during the last decades, Treptacantha elegans has increased their distributional range and has shown an extraordinary expansion along the Catalan northern coast over the last two decades. The results of this thesis contributed to explaining this geographical and depth range extension, which could be linked to some ecological attributes such as their relative fast-growing dynamics, early fertile maturity, and high turnover rate. Besides, the molecular analyses have shown that all the populations of T. elegans in the Catalan coast constitute a single genetic group that could be originated in the MIMBT Natural Park under the marine protection benefit. Given the fast and stable population dynamics of T. elegans, this species was selected as a potential species to actively restore degraded shallow rocky ecosystems (e.g., sea urchin barren grounds) turning them into productive marine forests. In this way, the effectiveness of active restoration actions combined with passive strategies such as marine protection (e.g., NTZs) was experimentally demonstrated.This thesis addressed marine vegetation changes in the shallow rocky shores of the MIMBT Natural Park integrating the macroalgal and sea urchin dynamics in front of natural and human-related impacts, and the role and effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas and restoration actions as conservation tools at lower trophic levels. Besides, since most of this thesis is based on long-term monitoring data, a valuable baseline of the algal community's structure and functioning was provided here which could be vital to predict and detect ecological changes that could jeopardize the preservation of marine forests." -- TDX.

Handbook of Citizen Science in Ecology and Conservation

Author : Christopher A. Lepczyk
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"Handbook of Citizen Science in Ecology and Conservation is the first practical and comprehensive manual that provides step-by-step instructions for creating natural science research projects that involve collaboration between scientists and the general public. As citizen-science projects become increasingly common, there is a growing need for concrete best practices around planning and implementing successful projects that can allow project leaders to guide and gauge success of projects while ensuring the collection of high-quality data. Based on a variety of case studies from several citizen-science projects, this is the definitive reference guide for all potential citizen-science practitioners, ranging from professors and graduate students to staff at agencies and nongovernmental organizations"--

Plant Biodiversity

Author : Abid A Ansari
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Results of regular monitoring of the species diversity and structure of plant communities is used by conservation biologists to help understand impacts of perturbations caused by humans and other environmental factors on ecosystems worldwide. Changes in plant communities can, for example, be a reflection of increased levels of pollution, a response to long-term climate change, or the result of shifts in land-use practices by the human population. This book presents a series of essays on the application of plant biodiversity monitoring and assessment to help prevent species extinction, ecosystem collapse, and solve problems in biodiversity conservation. It has been written by a large international team of researchers and uses case studies and examples from all over the world, and from a broad range of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The book is aimed at any graduate students and researchers with a strong interest in plant biodiversity monitoring and assessment, plant community ecology, biodiversity conservation, and the environmental impacts of human activities on ecosystems.

Effective Ecological Monitoring

Author : David B Lindenmayer
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Long-term monitoring programs are fundamental to understanding the natural environment and effectively tackling major environmental problems. Yet they are often done very poorly and ineffectively. Effective Ecological Monitoring describes what makes successful and unsuccessful long-term monitoring programs. Short and to the point, it illustrates key aspects with case studies and examples. It is based on the collective experience of running long-term research and monitoring programs of the two authors – experience which spans more than 70 years. The book first outlines why long-term monitoring is important, then discusses why long-term monitoring programs often fail. The authors then highlight what makes good and effective monitoring. These good and bad aspects of long-term monitoring programs are further illustrated in the fourth chapter of the book. The final chapter sums up the future of long-term monitoring programs and how to make them better, more effective and better targeted.

New Directions in Conservation Medicine

Author : A. Alonso Aguirre
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In recent years, species and ecosystems have been threatened by many anthropogenic factors manifested in local and global declines of populations and species. Although we consider conservation medicine an emerging field, the concept is the result of the long evolution of transdisciplinary thinking within the health and ecological sciences and the better understanding of the complexity within these various fields of knowledge. Conservation medicine was born from the cross fertilization of ideas generated by this new transdisciplinary design. It examines the links among changes in climate, habitat quality, and land use; emergence and re-emergence of infectious agents, parasites and environmental contaminants; and maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functions as they sustain the health of plant and animal communities including humans. During the past ten years, new tools and institutional initiatives for assessing and monitoring ecological health concerns have emerged: landscape epidemiology, disease ecological modeling and web-based analytics. New types of integrated ecological health assessment are being deployed; these efforts incorporate environmental indicator studies with specific biomedical diagnostic tools. Other innovations include the development of non-invasive physiological and behavioral monitoring techniques; the adaptation of modern molecular biological and biomedical techniques; the design of population level disease monitoring strategies; the creation of ecosystem-based health and sentinel species surveillance approaches; and the adaptation of health monitoring systems for appropriate developing country situations. New Directions of Conservation Medicine: Applied Cases of Ecological Health addresses these issues with relevant case studies and detailed applied examples. New Directions of Conservation Medicine challenges the notion that human health is an isolated concern removed from the bounds of ecology and species interactions. Human health, animal health, and ecosystem health are moving closer together and at some point, it will be inconceivable that there was ever a clear division.

Conservation Monitoring in Freshwater Habitats

Author : Clive Hurford
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This conservation monitoring reference focuses on the development of clear, site-specific management goals in freshwater habitats. Field trials are discussed, and the results expose areas for improvement in many existing monitoring projects.

Monitoring Ecological Change

Author : Ian F. Spellerberg
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Living communities are continuously changing, both as a result of natural processes and the activities of Man. It is essential for us to have effective biological and ecological monitoring programmes in order to detect these changes and understand the factors which influence them. Monitoring Ecological Change provides a practical and thought-provoking introduction to the subject, which will be of broad interest to students and professionals in the areas of ecology, environmental science, conservation and resource management. In the first part of the book, the roles of local, national and international organisations which implement monitoring programmes are discussed and assessed. In the second section of the book, a wide range of examples are used to explain and evaluate methods of data collection, analysis and interpretation. The final section focuses on the important applications of biological monitoring, such as pollution control, land-use management, monitoring rare species, and post-environmental impact assessment.

Ecology and Conservation of Amphibians

Author : Trevor Beebee
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This volume sets out to provide an overview of recent research on all aspects of amphibian ecology and behaviour and to illustrate its application to practical conservation measures for this major group of animals. Its broad scope makes it of relevance to students of general biology, ecology and conservation, but also to professionals in industries and agencies involved with environmental issues and nature conservation.

Biodiversity Monitoring in Australia

Author : David Lindenmayer
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Ecological and biodiversity-based monitoring has been marked by an appalling lack of effectiveness and lack of success in Australia for more than 40 years, despite the billions of dollars that are invested in biodiversity conservation annually. What can be done to rectify this situation? This book tackles many aspects of the problem of biodiversity monitoring. It arose from a major workshop held at The Australian National University in February 2011, attended by leaders in the science, policy-making and management arenas of biodiversity conservation. Chapter contributors examine what has led to successful monitoring, the key problems with biodiversity monitoring and practical solutions to those problems. By capturing critical insights into successes, failures and solutions, the authors provide high-level guidance for important initiatives such as the National Biodiversity Strategy. Ultimately, the authors hope to considerably improve the quality and effectiveness of biodiversity monitoring in Australia, and to arrest the decline of biodiversity. KEY FEATURES * Engaging style * Practical information that is based on very high quality scientific information

Ecological Consequences of Climate Change

Author : Erik A. Beever
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Contemporary climate change is a crucial management challenge for wildlife scientists, conservation biologists, and ecologists of the 21st century. Climate fingerprints are being detected and documented in the responses of hundreds of wildlife species and numerous ecosystems around the world. To mitigate and accommodate the influences of climate change on wildlife and ecosystems, broader-scale conservation strategies are needed. Ecological Consequences of Climate Change: Mechanisms, Conservation, and Management provides a mechanistic understanding of biotic responses to climate change, in order to better inform conservation and management strategies. Incorporating modeling and real-world examples from diverse taxa, ecosystems, and spatio-temporal scales, the book first presents research on recently observed rapid shifts in temperature and precipitation. It then explains how these shifts alter the biotic landscape within species and ecosystems, and how they may be expected to impose changes in the future. Also included are major sections on monitoring and conservation efforts in the face of contemporary climate change. Contributors highlight the general trends expected in wildlife and ecological responses as well as the exceptions and contingencies that may mediate those responses. Topics covered include: Description and quantification of how aspects of climate have recently changed, and may change in the future Species-level and higher-order ecological responses to climate change and variability Approaches to monitor and interpret ecological effects of climatic variability Conservation and management efforts The book discusses the quantification of the magnitude and variability in short-term responses, and delineates patterns of relative vulnerability among species and community types. It offers suggestions for designing investigations and management actions, including the long-term monitoring of ecological consequences of rapid climate change. It also identifies many of the biggest gaps in current knowledge, proposing avenues for further research. Bringing together many of the world’s leading experts on ecological effects of climate change, this unique and timely volume constitutes a valuable resource for practitioners, researchers, and students.

Evaluation and Assessment for Conservation

Author : I.F. Spellberg
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This book, previously published in hardback, has now been republished in paperback and added to the growing number of titles in Chapman & Hall's Conservation Biology Series. Evaluation and Assessment for Conservation contains pertinent examples and case studies from around the world illustrating the issues faced by conservationists. In addition, it summarizes a very large amount of material from the scientific literature.