Search results for: scientific-methods-and-cultural-heritage

Scientific Methods and Cultural Heritage

Author : Gilberto Artioli
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Artioli provides an introduction to the methods and rationales of the scientific investigation of cultural heritage materials, with an emphasis placed on the analytical strategies, modes of operation and resulting information rather than on technicalities.

Bridging Science and Heritage in the Balkans

Author : Nona Palincas
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In a period when, particularly in the West, the study of archaeological remains is enriched through new methods derived from the natural sciences and when there is general agreement on the need for more investment in the study, restoration and conservation of the tangible cultural heritage, this book presents contributions to these fields from South-Eastern Europe. This region is characterised by a contrast between the rather limited development of the above scientific methods and the particularly rich and diverse material remains of its past societies, as well as by an obvious need to bring closer together traditionally-trained archaeologists with specialists in natural sciences interested in the research and conservation of ancient material remains. The title 'Bridging Science and Heritage in the Balkans' intends to show that the volume is part of this effort. The departing point of this volume is the 5th Balkan Symposium of Archaeometry (25-29 September 2016, Sinaia, Romania), where most of the papers published here were presented in preliminary form. The contributors are specialists from South-Eastern Europe as well as from other European countries working there. Some chapters focus on methods (in the research of glass, restoration of stone monuments affected by contemporary graffiti, conservation by irradiation of organic materials such as wood and human and animal body remains); most chapters present case studies (analyses of ceramics, metals, soils, wood anatomy, isotope-based reconstruction of human diet, ancient DNA, radiocarbon dating, technology assisted field survey, as well as restoration of paper and pigments); sometimes several methods are combined. The volume covers nearly all aspects of heritage sciences employed in this part of Europe.

Scientific Analysis of Cultural Heritage Objects

Author : Michael Wiescher
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The characterization of cultural heritage objects becomes increasingly important for conservation, restoration, dating, and authentication purposes. The use of scientific methods in archaeometry and conservation science has led to a significant broadening of the field. Scientific analysis of these objects is a challenging task due to their complex composition, artistic and historical values requiring the use of minimally invasive and nondestructive analytical procedures. This textbook summarizes scientific methods that are currently used to characterize objects of cultural heritage and archaeological artifacts. This book provides a brief description of the structure of matter at the molecular, atomic, and nuclear levels. Furthermore, it discusses the chemical and physical nature of materials from the molecular to the atomic and nuclear level as determined by the principles of quantum mechanics. Important aspects of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity that play a critical role for some of the analytical techniques are also emphasized. The textbook also provides principals and applications of spectroscopic methods for characterization of cultural heritage objects. It describes the technologies with specific examples for utilization of spectroscopic techniques in the characterization of paintings, books, coins, ceramics, and other objects. Analytic approaches that employ isotopes and determination of isotope ratios will be reviewed. General principles of imaging techniques and specific examples for utilization of these methods will also be summarized. In the later part of the book, a number of scientific techniques for the age determination of cultural heritage material and archaeological artifacts will be presented and discussed with specific examples.

Scientific Analysis of Cultural Heritage Objects

Author : Michael Wiescher
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The characterization of cultural heritage objects becomes increasingly important for conservation, restoration, dating, and authentication purposes. The use of scientific methods in archaeometry and conservation science has led to a significant broadening of the field. Scientific analysis of these objects is a challenging task due to their complex composition, artistic and historical values requiring the use of minimally invasive and nondestructive analytical procedures. This textbook summarizes scientific methods that are currently used to characterize objects of cultural heritage and archaeological artifacts. This book provides a brief description of the structure of matter at the molecular, atomic, and nuclear levels. Furthermore, it discusses the chemical and physical nature of materials from the molecular to the atomic and nuclear level as determined by the principles of quantum mechanics. Important aspects of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity that play a critical role for some of the analytical techniques are also emphasized. The textbook also provides principals and applications of spectroscopic methods for characterization of cultural heritage objects. It describes the technologies with specific examples for utilization of spectroscopic techniques in the characterization of paintings, books, coins, ceramics, and other objects. Analytic approaches that employ isotopes and determination of isotope ratios will be reviewed. General principles of imaging techniques and specific examples for utilization of these methods will also be summarized. In the later part of the book, a number of scientific techniques for the age determination of cultural heritage material and archaeological artifacts will be presented and discussed with specific examples.

Physics Methods in Archaeometry

Author : Società italiana di fisica
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The role of exact sciences in connection with cultural heritage now is well established and a new scientific branch has been generated: Archaeometry. Literally, Archaeometry means measurement on ancient objects. It is a multidisciplinary field of investigations where the rigorous methods of exact sciences give a fundamental contribution to solving the problems associated with conservation and restoration, as well as to the study itself of the cultural heritage. Archaeometry, as a scientific research field, involves interdisciplinary groups formed by scholars of the humanistic area together with scientists: physicists, chemists, mathematicians, biologists, engineers, etc. The primary justification for the need of involving exact sciences in the field which, in the past, traditionally has been exclusive of Art Historians must no doubt be found in the conservation and restoration activities. The second argument which, in the public opinion, justifies the involvement of science with the world of Art is the confidence that scientific methods are infallible in unmasking forgeries. But in our opinion the awareness of the central role of scientific methods as a support for philological and historical investigations is still very little diffuse or, at least, finds it hard to become widespread. Perhaps also because of our mentality, Physics, compared to chemistry, is more apt to find applications in a context free from authentication or conservation implications.

Selected Issues On Research Methods

Author : K. L. Bhowmik
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The Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage

Author : Guido Camarda
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THz Technology Applied to Cultural Heritage in Practice

Author : Kaori Fukunaga
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This book describes the current, concrete status of terahertz (THz) technology applied to scientific diagnoses of cultural heritage objects for conservation planning as well as for historical interest. It is unlike other THz-related scientific books in optics series, which only describe technologies and the physics behind them. A new method utilizing THz technology is introduced, which will help conservators and historians to analyse art objects at their museums. By using pulse echoes, THz imaging can noninvasively show internal structures such as layers in paintings and internal defects or additional pieces in objects. The biggest advantage of THz technology in heritage science is that THz waves can reveal the condition of preparation layers and supports of paintings that cannot be observed by other nondestructive testing methods, such as infrared (IR) or X-ray radiography. The condition of supports and preparation layers determine the lifetime of the paintings, so that their condition is the key factor for conservation planning. The comparison with existing classic methods for scientific analyses is extremely important in the context of introducing new technologies in any research field, since most conservators and heritage scientists have their own protocols for classic methods. This book compares THz results not only with visible cross sections obtained using destructive methods, but also mid-IR, near IR, UV, X-ray, and nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR), which are considered to be nondestructive methods. The book suggests future work that can be done by THz specialists, especially concerning the development of THz cameras, and by engineers and scientists in other fields, such as signal processing and chemistry, as well as by conservators.

Non destructive Micro Analysis of Cultural Heritage Materials

Author : K. Janssens
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This book provides the scientific and technical background materials of non-destructive methods of microscopic analysis that are suitable for analysing works of art, museum pieces and archeaological artefacts. Written by experts in the field, this multi-author volume contains a number of case studies, illustrating the value of these methods. The book is suited to natural scientists and analysts looking to increase their knowledge of the various methods that are currently available for non-destructive analysis. It is also the perfect resource for museum curators, archaeologists and art-historians seeking to identify one or more suitable methods of analysis that could solve material-related problems.

Scientific Culture in the Contemporary World

Author : Vittorio Mathieu
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Nanotechnologies in the Conservation of Cultural Heritage

Author : Piero Baglioni
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This book presents novel applications of nanotechnology for the preservation of artistic and historical artifacts. It explains the scientific principles behind numerous nanomaterials and discusses their applications to different types of common movable and fixed artistic substrates. It starts with an overview of the nano-tools developed over the last three decades, such as dispersions of nanoparticles, micellar solutions, microemulsions and gels. Compared to traditional methods, these new tools have the benefit of considerably less impact on both the operators and the environment. Each chapter is dedicated to a specific type of cultural heritage material (wall and easel paintings, stone, paper, canvas and wood) starting with the main degradation paths and discussing protocols for the application of innovative nanomaterials-based tools for cleaning, consolidation, or deacidification, which represent the majority of the case studies encountered in restoration facilities, workshops and ateliers. The book provides step-by-step descriptions that are meant to support conservators in the application of these novel materials and methods. The aim of the book is to equip end-users and conservators with essential information and knowledge on the availability and applicability of different nano-materials and dispersed systems. While the book’s focus is on the practical aspects, interested readers will also find references to the relevant advanced colloid and material science literature. Main audience: Expert conservators, restorers and technical staff at conservation institutes and museums, students at conservation and restoration schools, and scientists who are new to the field of conservation of artistic and historical artifacts.

Social Science Principles in the Light of Scientific Method

Author : Joseph Mayer
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Yococu 2014

Author : Andrea Macchia
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This volume is a collection of contributions presented at the 4th YOCOCU Youth in Conservation of Cultural Heritage Conference, held in Agsu, Azerbaijan, in May 2014. The driving force behind YOCOCU 2014 was to transcend geographical boundaries and encourage every participant to define their contribution and role within the cultural heritage community. The book starts by reflecting on the present politics, strategies and methods of cultural heritage conservation, and demonstrates new ideas and multidisciplinary approaches to conservation needs. This is not only a creative and passionate examination of cultural heritage conservation but also examines how YOCOCU 2014 was, and continues to be, a vector for the development of young professionals, a bridge between cultures and different levels of expertise.

The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law

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Analysis and Characterisation of Wooden Cultural Heritage by Scientific Engineering Methods

Author : Michael Kaliske
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Biology and the History of the Future

Author : John Cage
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Inventories of the Artistic Architectural and Cultural Heritage in the European Countries

Author : Albert Knoepfli
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CONSERVATION OF PAPERS AND TEXTILES

Author : National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage (South Korea)
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This publication introduces conservation techniques and research outcome of selected conservation projects for paper and textile objects. This publication introduces conservation techniques and research outcome of selected conservation projects for paper and textile objects. It compiles various kinds of resource on conservation treatment of paper and textile objects such as paintings ancient documents and costumes. It consists of essays on techniques and materials of conservation treatment,scientific analysis,and storage methods with case studies of previous conservation treatments to display general practice of conserving paper and textile objects in Korea. Case studies have been selected among previous treatments executed by major conservation institutes such as National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, and which recorded information clearly on materials and techniques applied to the artifacts during conservation process in written documents. FORWORD & CONTENTS I. PAPERS II. TEXTILES III. ESSAYS APPENDIX

Scientific Computing and Cultural Heritage

Author : Hans Georg Bock
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The sheer computing power of modern information technology is changing the face of research not just in science, technology and mathematics, but in humanities and cultural studies too. Recent decades have seen a major shift both in attitudes and deployment of computers, which are now vital and highly effective tools in disciplines where they were once viewed as elaborate typewriters. This revealing volume details the vast array of computing applications that researchers in the humanities now have recourse to, including the dissemination of scholarly information through virtual ‘co-laboratories’, data retrieval, and the modeling of complex processes that contribute to our natural and cultural heritage. One key area covered in this book is the versatility of computers in presenting images and graphics, which is transforming the analysis of data sets and archaeological reconstructions alike. The papers published here are grouped into three broad categories that cover mathematical and computational methods, research developments in information systems, and a detailed portrayal of ongoing work on documenting, restoring and presenting cultural monuments including the temples in Pompeii and the Banteay Chhmar temples of the Angkorian period in present-day Cambodia. Originally presented at a research workshop in Heidelberg, Germany, they reflect the rapidly developing identity of computational humanities as an interdisciplinary field in its own right, as well as demonstrating the breadth of perspectives in this young and vibrant research area.

Conserving Cultural Heritage

Author : María Jesús Mosquera
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The third International congress of Science and Technology for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage, TechnoHeritage 2017, was held in Cadiz, from 21 to 24 May 2017, under the umbrella of the TechnoHeritage network. TechnoHeritage is an initiative funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivity dedicated to the creation of a network which integrates CSIC and University groups, private companies and end users such as foundations, museums or institutions. The network’s purpose is to foster the creation of transdisciplinary (and not only multidisciplinary) initiatives focused on the study of all assets, movable or immovable, that make up Cultural Heritage. A high-quality scientific programme was prepared, which includes new emerging topics on Cultural Heritage (1) Nanomaterials and other Products for Conservation, (2) New Technologies for Analysis, Protection and Conservation, (3) 20th Century Cultural Heritage, (4) Significance of Cultural Heritage. Policies for Conservation, (5) Deterioration of Cultural Heritage, (6) Biodeterioration: Fundamentals, Present and Future Perspectives and (7) Underwater Cultural Heritage. A special session "Biodeterioration: Fundamentals, present and future perspectives, a session in honour of Prof. Cesáreo Sáiz Jiménez" took place. Our intention was to recognise the work of Prof. Sáiz Jiménez, who recently retired, and its impact on the Cultural Heritage conservation community, which he has helped to promote through numerous activities including, in 2011, the creation of the TechnoHeritage network. This volume publishes a total of eighty-three contributions which reflect the state of the art investigations on different aspects of cultural heritage conservation.