Search results for: the-discovery-of-cosmic-voids

The Discovery of Cosmic Voids

Author : Laird A. Thompson
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The definitive story of the discovery of cosmic voids from a key protagonist in the development of the discipline.

The Discovery of Cosmic Voids

Author : Laird A. Thompson
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The large-scale structure of the Universe is dominated by vast voids with galaxies clustered in knots, sheets, and filaments, forming a great 'cosmic web'. In this personal account of the major astronomical developments leading to this discovery, we learn from Laird A. Thompson, a key protagonist, how the first 3D maps of galaxies were created. Using non-mathematical language, he introduces the standard model of cosmology before explaining how and why ideas about cosmic voids evolved, referencing the original maps, reproduced here. His account tells of the competing teams of observers, racing to publish their results, the theorists trying to build or update their models to explain them, and the subsequent large-scale survey efforts that continue to the present day. This is a well-documented account of the birth of a major pillar of modern cosmology, and a useful case study of the trials surrounding how this scientific discovery became accepted.

Chronicles of the Cosmic Void

Author : Richard W. Pfeffer
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Chronicles of the Cosmic Void: The Reluctant Traveler By: Richard W. Pfeffer Chronicles of the Cosmic Void: The Reluctant Traveler begins with the abduction of a party of Roman soldiers by belligerent alien beings. Centuries later, the US Air Force, after noticing a pattern of mysterious abductions and the detection of an anomalous signal deep within our solar system, launches a program of deep space exploration to uncover a horrifying truth that we are not alone in this universe and are far from being the dominant species. Recruited by the US Air Force and persuaded to join the covert top secret program, a romantic couple of young scientists- Doctor Ryan Williams and Doctor Rebecca Lang, learn that they are part of a crew that might be humanity’s last hope of survival when they discover two warring alien races: one, a benevolent species, and the other, hostile to the human race intent on its subjugation and destruction! Written to inspire interest in science fiction and astronomy, the book is an adventurous tale of hope, compassion and camaraderie dedicated to the premise that no matter where you are in life or what challenges life might bring, it’s love that gives us the strength to tolerate and overcome all obstacles, however insurmountable they might seem.

Bubbles Voids and Bumps in Time

Author : James Cornell
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In this volume, six leading cosmologists provide a current 'state of the universe' report, examining what we know about the universe, and what pieces are still missing from the cosmic puzzle.

Cosmic Voids and Void Properties

Author : Danny C. Pan
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The Eye of Ra

Author : David Klooz
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“…a large planet stood above the North Pole for a very long time.” That is what all the mythology throughout the world uniformly states. Mythology from every nation, region, tribe, and period, in thousands of languages, in hundreds of forms, from every continent; they all resound, “a large planet stood above the North Pole for a very long time.” Every country is accounted for except those located more than 10 degrees below the equator. The mythology of regions as far removed from each other as Siberia, North Africa, and Guatemala all agree. As others have indicated, I will also suggest that this planet was Saturn and that Saturn was initially a brown dwarf star that created Earth, Mars and later Venus. In order to put the story into context, I will make it abundantly clear that the framework will be based upon plasma physics and the existence of the aether. The Solvay Conference, founded by the Belgian industrialist Ernest Solvay in 1912, was considered a turning point in the world of physics. Located in Brussels, the conferences were devoted to outstanding open problems in both physics and chemistry. The most famous conference was the October 1927 Fifth Solvay International Conference on Electrons and Photons, where the world’s most so-called notable physicists met to discuss the newly formulated quantum theory. The leading figures were Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr. “Settled Science” and “Consensus Science” began at this time and it is also the moment we stopped doing real physics in the 20th and 21st centuries. The bold theoretical and experimental era of physics, by the likes of Maxwell, at the very dawn of science, as we know it, ended abruptly at the start of the 20th Century. That was when our currently accepted, and very different, view of “physics”, everything from the “Big Bang” Expanding Universe Cosmology, to Relativistic limitations imposed by “flat” space and non-simultaneous time, complicated by a non-intuitive “Quantum Mechanics” of suddenly uncertain atomic “realities”, all took a very different turn from where they had been headed. The quantum theory discarded the basic physics principle of cause followed by effect. Einstein was disenchanted with the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and created his own fatal damage when his “thought experiment” made-up the theory of relativity. He isolated his arbitrary observer from the rest of the universe, discarded the absolute standards of length and time, invented an imaginary proper clock that does not exist, removed the aether, and the effect of gravity became an illusion. Make sure you understand this was not done using any scientific method, i.e., observation, experimentation and replication, but by what became known as a “thought experiment”. Einstein should have kept his day job in the post office, as he has set physics, the so-called Queen of the Sciences back 100 years. This conference was also the culmination of the struggle between Einstein and the scientific realists, who wanted strict rules of scientific method as laid out by Charles Peirce and Karl Popper, versus Bohr and the instrumentalists, who wanted looser rules based on ‘expected’ outcomes, regardless of causes and effects. Starting at this point, the instrumentalists won, instrumentalism having been seen as the norm ever since. And that has been the insurmountable problem with science ever since, the loss of the scientific method and accepting causes without effects and conversely. These are all unforgivable losses to the great physicists of the past. We were propelled nearly 2,000 years into past to the Greek Ptolemaic era when geometric symmetry and mathematical beauty dictated that endless the ad-hoc epicycles be added to perfect circular planetary orbits in order to match appearances. That dogma lasted almost 1500 years. How long will we allow relativity dogma and its taboos to persist? It should be no surprise that since that fateful conference in 1927, science has failed to produce any fundamental breakthroughs anything like the 19th century, when some of the finest experimental physicists, such as Ampere, Gauss, Faraday, and Maxwell were discovering the secrets of electricity and electromagnetism. The electric universe and plasma physics and cosmology follows the lead of these experimenting electrical pioneers. According, I will also discard the “thought experiments” of Einstein and defer to real scientists, namely Tesla, Maxwell, Thornhill, and others, who long ago recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, of a tenuity beyond conception and filling all space, the Akasha, or luminiferous aether, which is acted upon by the life-giving Prana or creative force, calling into existence, in never ending cycles, all things and phenomena. This primary substance, thrown into infinitesimal whirls of prodigious velocity, becomes gross matter; the force subsiding, the motion ceases and matter disappears, reverting to the primary substance. The structure and nature is most likely a vortex, appearing like a donut from above or below. What I will attempt to present to you in the book, is the real story of our history and the real fact that we, and the universe and everything in it, is electric in nature. I will present facts and evidence that demonstrate that all religions, mystery schools, the Bible, and other religious books are nothing more than a rewritten and edited story of a solar system wide cataclysm. A story that was written, rewritten and edited to make it appear that Jewish people were the ‘Chosen People of God’, We will see that all the pyramids, especially those on the Giza Plateau were built as an energy gathering, converting and storing machines to try to save the Earth and Mankind from the electromagnetic perturbations caused by the Sirius System (the Sun’s binary twin) that occurs approximately every 24,000 years. The Great Pyramid was not a weapon, and certainly not a death star used to explode planets. There has been no atomic wars on Earth and no landings by ‘alien’ beings on Earth, nor on any other planet in our solar system. There is no Planet X and there is no Nibiru. The so-called ‘Planet of the Crossing’ is actually the star Sirius, the Sun’s binary twin. We will see that all the five visible planets, Saturn, Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, Venus and the two luminaries, the Moon and our current Sun, became the Gods, with several of them, coming down to Earth from the Heavens to write our history only a few thousand years ago. We will also see and understand that the vast amount of cratering and channels on all of the planets in our solar system are not the result of random meteor or comet strikes, wind or water erosion, but are the results of electrical arcing between planets that has scarred the surface of the planets and has been demonstrated and replicated, in exact detail, in plasma laboratories. We will examine the Exodus, within the context of the Earth in upheaval from a natural solar system-wide cataclysm, and how Akhenaton, Moses and the Ark are main characters in the event. We will also examine Mount Sinai and its real identity and location, as well as, the Sacred Stone(s), its use, who stole them, and why. This story does not depend on miracles or faith, but is based upon evidence, both ancient and current. It is our genuine history that has been kept from us in order to maintain control by those in power. If you can not see the truth in this story and you want to believe in religions or the current false, consensus or settled ‘science’, you must believe them in one of three ways: by faith; by ignorance; or by indoctrination: by faith, because you cannot believe something which does not have adequate scientific evidence except as a philosophical viewpoint; by ignorance, because the only way to be certain in your mind that these theories could work, is because you do not have all the facts; or, if you have been so far indoctrinated you have not made a logical conclusion with your own rational mind, you may have never even tried to question what you have been told to believe. You must decide for yourself what you will believe. If you decide to believe in today’s biblical religious myths or “consensus and settled pseudoscience of the quackademics and media”, that is fine, just realize that none are supported by true science using the Scientific Method. They are myths, and not even good ones, at that. Just remember, believing this nonsense and everything else the ‘authorities’ say is just what they want, i.e., no change in the status quo and leave the thinking to them.

A Correlation Between Hard Gamma ray Sources and Cosmic Voids Along the Line of Sight

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Cosmic Voids in Large scale Structure Surveys

Author : Giorgia Pollina
File Size : 61.1 MB
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The Cosmic Web

Author : J. Richard Gott
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Semi-autobiographical discussion of astronomy and astronomers, and history of astronomy and cosmology.--

Voices of Mexico

Author :
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Inhomogeneous Cosmological Models

Author : Andrzej Krasiński
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This unique volume provides a comprehensive survey of our understanding of the Universe based on the exact solutions of the theory of relativity. More precisely, it describes those models that fit with astronomical observations of galaxy clusters, cosmic voids and other key features of our Universe. This authoritative account achieves two important goals. First, it collects all independently derived cosmological solutions since the birth of relativity in 1915, and clearly shows how they are interrelated. Second, it presents a coherent overview of the physical properties of these inhomogeneous models. It demonstrates, for instance, that the formation of voids and the interaction of the cosmic microwave background radiation with matter in the Universe can be explained by exact solutions of the Einstein equations, without the need for approximations. This book will be of particular interest to graduates and researchers in gravity, relativity and theoretical cosmology as well as historians of science.

Light from the Void

Author : Kimberly K. Arcand
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A lavish coffee-table book featuring spectacular images from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the most powerful X-Ray telescope ever built Take a journey through the cosmos with Light from the Void, a stunning collection of photographs from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory's two decades of operation. The book showcases rarely-seen celestial phenomena such as black holes, planetary nebulae, galaxy clusters, gravitational waves, stellar birth and death, and more. Accompanying these images of incredible natural phenomena are captions explaining how they occur. The images start close to home and move outward: beginning with images of the Chandra launch, then moving into the solar system, through the nearby universe, and finally to the most distant galaxies Chandra has observed, the book brings readers on a far-out visual voyage.

Cosmic Voids and Void Lensing in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data

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Galaxies and their dark matter halos populate a complicated filamentary network around large, nearly empty regions known as cosmic voids. Cosmic voids are usually identified in spectroscopic galaxy surveys, where 3D information about the large-scale structure of the Universe is available. Although an increasing amount of photometric data is being produced, its potential for void studies is limited since photometric redshifts induce line-of-sight position errors of $\sim50$ Mpc/$h$ or more that can render many voids undetectable. In this paper we present a new void finder designed for photometric surveys, validate it using simulations, and apply it to the high-quality photo-$z$ redMaGiC galaxy sample of the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES-SV) data. The algorithm works by projecting galaxies into 2D slices and finding voids in the smoothed 2D galaxy density field of the slice. Fixing the line-of-sight size of the slices to be at least twice the photo-$z$ scatter, the number of voids found in these projected slices of simulated spectroscopic and photometric galaxy catalogs is within 20% for all transverse void sizes, and indistinguishable for the largest voids of radius $\sim 70$ Mpc/$h$ and larger. The positions, radii, and projected galaxy profiles of photometric voids also accurately match the spectroscopic void sample. Applying the algorithm to the DES-SV data in the redshift range $0.2

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

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The Void

Author : Frank Close
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What is 'the void'? What remains when you take all the matter away? Can empty space - 'nothing' - exist? This little book explores the science and the history of the elusive void: from Aristotle who insisted that the vacuum was impossible, via the theories of Newton and Einstein, to our very latest discoveries and why they can tell us extraordinary things about the cosmos. Frank Close tells the story of how scientists have explored the elusive void, and the rich discoveries that they have made there. He takes the reader on a lively and accessible history through ancient ideas and cultural superstitions to the frontiers of current research. He describes how scientists discovered that the vacuum is filled with fields; how Newton, Mach, and Einstein grappled with the nature of space and time; and how the mysterious 'aether' that was long ago supposed to permeate the void may now be making a comeback with the latest research into the 'Higgs field'. We now know that the vacuum is far from being 'nothing' - it seethes with virtual particles and antiparticles that erupt spontaneously into being, and it also may contain hidden dimensions that we were previously unaware of. These new discoveries may provide answers to some of cosmology's most fundamental questions: what lies outside the universe, and, if there was once nothing, then how did the universe begin?

Cross correlations in the Dark Energy Survey

Author : Pauline Eva Vielzeuf
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During the past decades, we have been the witnesses of unprecedented advancements in the understanding of our universe dynamics and evolution. Indeed, together with the theory General Relativity (GR) by Albert Einstein at the beginning of the 1900's, the improvement of observational tools have led to the establishment of the standard model of cosmology the so-called ∧-cold-Dark-Matter model (∧CDM) that is so far the simplest model that describes best our universe considering observations. However, this standard model suffers from caveats, more specifically the presence in the theory of two dark components, Dark Energy and Dark Matter. Understanding the mystery behind these two components have become the leading objective of observational cosmology today, and of current experiments, as it is the case of the Dark Energy Survey (DES), that will after 5 years of observations image about 300 million galaxies with an unprecedented depth covering one eighth of the sky (5000 sq. deg.). This thesis is based on the analysis of the first year of observation of DES (DESY1) and more in particular on the use of cross-correlation techniques in cosmological analyses. Here, we expose two of different possible use of cross-correlation. Namely, we first show how cross-correlation techniques has been employed as a tool to infer redshift distribution of objects using the socalled clustering-redshift methodologies. And moreover how for the first time this techniques have entered in the cosmological analyses to correct the mean of the redshift distributions of the DESY1 galaxy catalog with shapes (the weak lensing sample) inferred by typical photometric techniques. We explain how using simulation we have evaluated systematics errors induced by our overall methodology and present the full methodology employed for redshift distribution determination of the DESY1 Weak lensing sample. In a second time, we expose how we have been using cross-correlations as a probe of ∧CDM cosmology using in one hand cross-correlation between cosmic voids identified in the DESY1 catalogs and the lensing map from the Planck satellite and on the other hand simulated ∧CDM cosmology. More specifically, recent results have suggested an excess signal in the observed void catalogs imprint in the Cosmic Microwave Background temperature maps with respect to simulated ∧CDM cosmology, we reiterate the procedure using this time the lensing maps of the CMB. After optimizing our void catalogs in simulation, looking for population of voids responsible for the more significant detection,we could detect the imprint of DESY1 cosmic voids with a significance of ̃ 7 – 12ơ with a discrepancy of ̃ 3 – 9ơ with respect to ∧CDM simulations.

Clusters Voids and Reconstructions of the Cosmic Web

Author : Evert Gerardus Patrick Bos
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The Large Scale Structures

Author : Stéphane Ilić
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Dark Energy and Dark Matter are among the greatest mysteries in modern cosmology. The present work explores in depth how large cosmic structures can help us unveil the nature of these components of the Universe. One the one hand, it focuses on a signature that Dark Energy imprints on the Cosmic Microwave Background through its impact on the time-evolution of gravitational potentials: the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (iSW) effect. Another cosmological background, the Cosmic Infrared Background, is considered for the first time in the study of the iSW effect and demonstrated to be a highly efficient and promising tracer. Changing the perspective on the problem, the use of superstructures for iSW detection is then extensively reviewed: using precise solutions to Einstein’s general relativity equations, the full iSW effect is computed, especially due to the cosmic voids predicted by the theory. Using measurements from the most recent data, it is subsequently shown how the iSW probes the solidity of the cosmological standard model. On the topic of Dark Matter, an original study is presented, showing that temperature measurements of the intergalactic medium shed light on the nature of Dark Matter particles, providing the tightest constraints on their decay properties.

Discover

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Shrouds of the Night

Author : David L. Block
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The Milky Way has captivated the mind of multitudes ever since the beginning of time. Particularly striking are its apparent dusty gaping voids. With the advent of near-infrared technology, astronomers have discovered an awesome new view of its structure, and of the structure of other galaxies around us. Galaxies are encased within Shrouds of the Night: shrouds or veils of cosmic dust, which have given us a totally incomplete picture of what our majestic Universe actually looks like. In this book, we feature some of the remarkable early photographic work of masters such as Isaac Roberts and Edward Barnard, before presenting to the reader the unmasked (dust penetrated) view of our cosmos, using some of the world’s largest ground and space-based telescopes.